Shakespeare’s Narrative Sources: Italian Novellas and Their European Dissemination

1580 – Modernised

Argument. [DP:Frame] [BAN:Frame and Dedication] [BOA:Summary] [R&J-Q1:Prologue] [R&J-Q2:Chorus 1]I am sure that they which measure the greatness of Gods works, according to the capacity of their rude and simple understanding, will not lightly adhibit credit unto this history, so well for the variety of strange accidents which be therein described, as for the novelty and strangeness of so rare and perfect amity. But they that have read Pliny, Valerius Maximus, Plutarch, and divers other writers, doe find that, in old time a great number of men and women have died, some of excessive joy, some of overmuch sorrow, and some of other passions. And amongst the same, love is not the least, which when it seizeth upon any kind and gentle subject, and finds no resistance to serve for a rampart to stay the violence of his course, by little and little undermineth, melteth, and consumeth the virtues of natural powers in such wise as the spirit yielding to the burden abandoneth the place of life, which is verified by the pitiful and unfortunate death of two lovers that surrendered their last breath in one Tomb at Verona, a city of Italy, wherein repose yet to this day (with great marvel) the bones and remnants of their late loving bodies. An history no less wonderful than true. 1. Description of Verona. [BAN:1] [BOA:1] [BR:1] [R&J-Q1:Prologue] [R&J-Q2:Chorus 1]If then particular affection which of good right everyman ought to bear to the place where he was born, doe not deceive those that travail, I think they will confess with me that few cities in Italy can surpass the said city of Verona, as well for the navigable river called Adissa, which passeth almost through the midst of the same, and thereby a great traffic into Almaine, as also for the prospect towards the fertile mountains and pleasant valleys which do environ the same, with a great number of very clear and lively fountains that serve for the ease and commodity of the place. Omitting (besides many other singularities) four bridges, and an infinite number of other honourable antiquities, daily apparent unto those, that be too curious to view and look upon them. 2. The narrator introduces the woeful story he is about to tell. [DP:Frame] [BAN:2] [BOA:2] [BR:2]Which places I have somewhat touched, because this most true History which I purpose hereafter to recite, dependeth thereupon the memory whereof to this day is so well known at Verona, as uneath their blubbered eyes be yet dry that saw and beheld that lamentable sight.

  3. The old grudge between the two families. [DP:1] [BAN:3] [BOA:3] [BR:4] [R&J-Q1:Prologue] [R&J-Q2:Chorus 1]When the Senior Escala was Lord of Verona, there were two families in the city, of far greater fame than the rest, as well for riches as nobility: the one called the Montesches and the other the Capellets. But like as most commonly there is discord amongst them, which be of semblable degree in honour, even so there happened a certain enmity between them: and for so much as the beginning thereof was unlawful, and of ill foundation, so likewise in process of time it kindled to such flame, as by divers and sundry devises practised on both sides, many lost their lives. 4. Lord Escala’s useless intervention. [DP:1] [BAN:4] [BOA:4] [BR:5] [R&J-Q1:2] [R&J-Q2:2]The Lord Bartholomeu of Escala (of whom we have already spoken), being Lord of Verona, and seeing such disorder in his commonwealth, assayed divers and sundry ways to reconcile those two houses, but all in vain: for their hatred had taken such root, as the same could not be moderated by any wise counsel or good advice: between whom no other thing could be accorded but giving over armour, and weapon for the time, attending some other season more convenient, and with better leisure to appease the rest. 5. Presentation of Rhomeo and his love for a young Veronese girl. [DP:2] [DP:3] [BAN:6] [BAN:7] [BOA:5] [BR:6] [BR:7] [R&J-Q2:5.c]In the time that these things were a-doing, one of the family of Montesches called Rhomeo, of the age of 20 or 21 years, the comeliest and best conditioned Gentleman that was amongst the Veronian youth, fell in love with a young Gentlewoman of Verona, and in few days was so attached with her beauty, and good behaviour, as he abandoned all other affairs and business to serve and honour her. And after many letters, ambassades, and presents, he determined in the end to speak unto her, and to disclose his passions, which he did without any other practice. But she, which was virtuously brought up, knew how to make him so good answer to cut of his amorous affections, as he had no lust after that time to return any more, and showed herself so austere, and sharp of speech, as she vouchsafed not with one look to behold him. 6. Rhomeo decides to leave Verona. [BAN:8] [BOA:6] [BR:8]But how much the young gentleman saw her whist, and silent, the more he was inflamed, and after he had continued certain months in that service without remedy of his grief, he determined in the end to depart Verona, for proof if by change of the place he might alter his affection, saying to himself: “What doe I mean to love one that is so unkind, and thus doth disdain me. I am all her own, and yet she flieth from me. I can no longer live, except her presence I doe enjoy. And she hath no contented mind, but when she is furthest from me. I will then from henceforth estrange myself from her, for it may so come to pass by not beholding her, that this fire in me which takes increase and nourishment by her fair eyes, by little and little may die and quench”. 7. Rhomeo is at a loss and is the prey of despair. [BAN:9] [BOA:7] [BR:9] [R&J-Q1:5.b] [R&J-Q2:5.b]But minding to put in proof what he thought, at one instant he was reduced to the contrary who, not knowing whereupon to resolve, passed days and nights in marvellous plaints and lamentations. For love vexed him so near, and had so well fixed the gentlewomans beauty within the bowels of his heart and mind, as not able to resist, he fainted with the charge and consumed by little and little as the snow against the Sun. 8. Rhomeo’s parents and friends lament his plight. [BAN:10] [BOA:8] [BR:10] [R&J-Q1:4.c] [R&J-Q2:4.c]Whereof his parents and kindred did marvel greatly bewailing his misfortune, 9. One of his friends rebukes him and advises him to look at other girls. [BAN:11] [BOA:9] [BR:11] [R&J-Q1:8] [R&J-Q1:10] [R&J-Q2:5.d] [R&J-Q2:8] [R&J-Q2:10]but above all other one of his companions of riper age, and counsel, than he, began sharply to rebuke him. For the love that he bare him was so great as he felt his martyrdom, and was partaker of his passion which caused him by often viewing his friends disquietness in amorous pangs, to say thus unto him: “Rhomeo, I marvel much that thou spendeth the best time of thine age, in pursuit of a thing, from which thou sees thyself despised and banished, without respect either to thy prodigal dispense, to your honour, to thy tears, or to thy miserable life, which be able to move the most constant to pity. Wherefore I pray thee for the love of our ancient amity, and for thine health sake, that thou wilt learn to be thine own man, and not to alienate thy liberty to any so ingrate as she is: for so far as I can conjecture by things that are passed between you, either she is in love with some other, or else determineth never to love any. Thou art young, rich in goods and fortune, and more excellent in beauty than any gentleman in this city: thou art well learned, and the only son of the house whereof thou comest. What grief would it be to thy poor old father and other thy parents, to see thee so drowned in this dungeon of vice, specially at that age wherein thou oughtest rather to put them in some hope of thy virtue? Begin then from henceforth to acknowledge thine error, wherein thou hast hitherto lived, doe away that amorous veil or coverture which blindeth thine eyes and letteth thee to follow the right path, wherein thine ancestors have walked, or else if thou do feel thyself so subject to thine own will, yield thy heart to some other place, and choose some mistress according to thy worthiness, and henceforth doe not sow thy pains in a soil so barren whereof thou reapest no fruit: the time approaches when all the dames of the city shall assemble, where thou may behold such one as shall make thee forget thy former grieves”. 10. Rhomeo follows his friend’s advice and attends feasts and parties. [BAN:12] [BOA:10] [BR:12]This young Gentleman attentively hearing all the persuading reasons of his friend, began somewhat to moderate that heat and to acknowledge all the exhortations which he had made to be directed to good purpose. And then determined to put them in all the feasts and assemblies of the city, without bearing affection more to one woman than to an other. And continued in this manner of life 2 or 3 months, thinking by that means to quench the sparks of ancient flames. 11. Anthonie Capellet’s feast at Christmas. [DP:2] [BAN:5] [BAN:13] [BOA:11] [BR:14] [R&J-Q1:6.c] [R&J-Q2:6.c]It chanced then within few days after, about the feast of Christmas, when feasts and banquets most commonly be used, and masks according to the customs frequented that Anthonie Capellet, being the chief of that family, and one of the most principal lords of the city too, made a banquet and, for the better solemnization thereof, invited all the noble men and dames, to which feast resorted the most part of the youth of Verona. 12. No Montague is invited but Rhomeo goes masked with some friends. After a while they unmask. [DP:4] [BAN:13] [BOA:12] [BR:15] [R&J-Q1:13.a] [R&J-Q1:13.d] [R&J-Q2:13.a] [R&J-Q2:13.d]The family of the Capellets (as we have declared in the beginning of this History) was at variance with the Montesches, which was the cause that none of that family repaired to that banquet, but only the young Gentleman Rhomeo, who came in a mask after supper with certain other young gentlemen. And after they had remained a certain space with their vizards on, at length they did put of the same, 13. Rhomeo withdraws into a corner. [DP:6] [BAN:14] [BOA:13] [BR:16]and Rhomeo very shamefast, withdrew himself into a corner of the Hall. 14. Rhomeo is gazed upon by the ladies for his beauty and audacity. [DP:4] [BAN:15] [BOA:14] [BR:17]But by reason of the light of the torches which burned very bright, he was by and by known and looked upon of the whole company, but specially of the ladies for, besides his native beauty wherewith nature had adorned him, they marvelled at his audacity how he durst presume to enter so secretly into the house of that Family which had little cause to do him any good. 15. Despite his being a Montague, no one at the feast confronts him for being there. [DP:4] [BAN:15] [BOA:15] [BR:18] [R&J-Q1:15.d] [R&J-Q2:15.d]Notwithstanding, the Capellets dissembling their malice, either for the honour of the company, or else for respect of his age, did not misuse him either in word or deed. 16 Rhomeo notices a girl and falls in love at first sight. [BOA:16] [BAN:16] [BR:19] [R&J-Q1:15.c] [R&J-Q2:15.c]By means whereof with free liberty he beheld and viewed the ladies at his pleasure, which he did so well, and with grace so good, as there was none but did very well like the presence of his person. And after he had particularly given judgement upon the excellency of each one, according to his affection, he saw one gentlewoman amongst the rest of surpassing beauty, 17. Rhomeo forgets about his previous love. The narrator comments on his sudden change and prefigures the tragic ending. [DP:11] [BOA:17] [BAN:17] [BR:20]who (although he had never seen her before) pleased him above the rest, and attributed unto her in heart the chiefest place for all perfection in beauty. And feasting her incessantly with piteous looks, the love which he bare to his first gentlewoman was overcome with this new fire, which took such nourishment and vigour in his heart, as he was not able never to quench the same but by death only: as you may understand by one of the strangest discourses, that ever any mortal man devised 18. Rhomeo feels as in a tempest tossed and does not dare ask the girl her name. The narrator comments on the tragic empoisoning of Roméo with love. [BAN:17] [BOA:18] [BR:21]The young Rhomeo then feeling himself thus tossed with this new tempest, could not tell what countenance to use, but was so surprised and changed with these last flames, as he had almost forgotten himself, in such wise as he had not audacity to enquire what she was, and wholly bent himself to feed his eyes with her sight, wherewith he moistened the sweet amorous venom, which did so empoison him, as he ended his days with a kind of most cruel death. 19. The narrator reveals that the girl’s name is Iulietta. [BAN:18] [BOA:19]The gentlewoman that did put Rhomeo to such pain, was called Iulietta, and was the daughter of Capellet, the master of the house where that assembly was 20. Iulietta sees Rhomeo and forgets about the feast. [DP:5] [BAN:18] [BOA:20] [BR:22]who, as her eyes did roll and wander to and fro, by chance espied Rhomeo, which unto her seemed to be the goodliest personage that ever she saw. And love (which lay in wait never until that time), assailing the tender heart of that young gentlewoman, touched her so at the quick, as for any resistance she could make was not able to defend his forces and then began to set at naught the royalties of the feast, and felt no pleasure in her heart but when she had a glimpse by throwing or receiving some sight or look of Rhomeo. 21. The two youths gaze at each other and become aware of mutual love. [BAN:19] [BOA:21] [BR:23]And after they had contented each others troubled heart with millions of amorous looks which oftentimes interchangeably encountered and met together, the burning beams gave sufficient testimony of loves privy onsets.

  22. Narrator’s comment on love and on fortune’s role. Iulietta is invited to dance. [BOA:22] [BOA:86] [BR:24]Love having made the hearts breach of those two lovers, as they two sought means to speak together, Fortune offered them a very meet and apt occasion. A certain lord of that troupe and company took Iulietta by the hand to dance, wherein she behaved herself so well, and with so excellent grace, as she won that day the price of honour from all the damsels of Verona. 23. Rhomeo takes a seat next to hers and when Iulietta returns from the dance she sist between him and Mercutio. [BOA:23] [BOA:87] [BR:25]Rhomeo, having foreseen the place whereunto she minded to retire, approached the same, and so discretely used the matter as he found the means at her return to sit beside her. Iulietta, when the dance was finished, returned to the very place where she was set before, and was placed between Rhomeo and an other gentleman called Mercutio, which was a courtlike gentleman, very well beloved of all men, and by reason of his pleasant and courteous behaviour was in every company well entertained. 24. Iulietta’s right hand is seized by Mercutio’s cold hand. [DP:9] [BAN:22] [BOA:24] [BR:26]Mercutio that was of audacity among maidens, as a lion is among lambs, seized incontinently upon the hand of Iulietta, whose hands wontedly were so cold both in winter and summer as the mountain ice, although the fires heat did warm the same. 25. Iulietta’s left hand is seized by Rhomeo. Emotion prevents him from talking to her. [DP:9] [BAN:22] [BOA:25] [BR:27] [R&J-Q1:15.e] [R&J-Q2:15.e]Rhomeo, which sat upon the left side of Iulietta, seeing that Mercutio held her by the right hand, took her by the other that he might not be deceived of his purpose, and straining the same a little, he felt himself so pressed with that new favour, as he remained mute, not able to answer. 26. Iulietta sees Rhomeo blush and starts talking. Rhomeo declares his love. [BAN:22] [BOA:26] [BR:28] [DP:10] [R&J-Q1:15.e] [R&J-Q2:15.e]But she, perceiving by his change of colour that the fault proceeded of the vehemence of love, desiring to speak unto him, turned herself towards him, and with trembling voice joined with virginal shamefastness, intermeddled with a certain bashfulness, said to him: “Blessed be the hour of your near approach”. But minding to proceed in further talk, love had so closed up her mouth, as she was not able to end her tale.

   Whereunto the young gentleman all ravished with joy and contentation, sighing, asked her what was the cause of that right fortunate blessing. Iulietta somewhat more emboldened with pitiful look and smiling countenance said unto him: “Sir, do not marvel if I do bless your coming hither, because sir Mercutio a good time with frosty hand hath wholly frozen mine, and you of your courtesy have warmed the same again”. Whereunto immediately Rhomeo replied: “Madame if the heavens have bene so favourable to employ me to do you some agreeable service being repaired hither by chance amongst other gentlemen, I esteem the same well bestowed, craving no greater benefit for satisfaction of all my contestations received in this world, than to serve, obey, and honour you so long as my life doth last, as experience shall yield more ample proof when it shall please you to give further assay. Moreover, if you have received any heat by touch of my hand, you may be well assured that those flames be dead in respect of the lively sparks and violent fire which sorts from your fair eyes, which fire hath so fiercely inflamed all the most sensible parts of my body, as if I be not succoured by the favour of your good graces, I doe attend the time to be consumed to dust”. 27. Iulietta avows her love and acknowledges his. She invites him to talk again privately. [BAN:22] [BOA:27] [BR:29] [R&J-Q1:15.e] [R&J-Q2:15.e]Scarce had he made an end of those last words, but the dance of the Torch was at an end. Whereby Iulietta, which wholly burnt with love, straightly clasping her hand with his, had no leisure to make other answer, but softly thus to say: “My dear friend, I know not what other assured witnesses you desire of Love, but that I let you understand that you be no more your own, than I am yours, being ready and disposed to obey you so far as honour shall permit, beseeching you for the present time to content yourself with this answer, until some other season meets to communicate more secretly of our affairs”. 28. Rhomeo asks his friends who the girl is and when he is told he despairs. [BAN:23] [BOA:28] [BR:31] [R&J-Q1:15.f] [R&J-Q2:15.f]Rhomeo, seeing himself pressed to part with the company, and for that he knew not by what means he might see her again that was his life and death, demanded of one of his friends what she was, who made answer that she was the daughter of Capellet, the Lord of the house, and master of that days feast (who wroth beyond measure that fortune had sent him to so dangerous a place, thought it impossible to bring to end his enterprise begun). 29. Iulietta finds out Rhomeo’s name and despairs. [BAN:24] [BOA:29] [BR:32] [R&J-Q1:15.h] [R&J-Q2:15.h]Iulietta, covetous on the other side, to know what young Gentleman he was which had so courteously entertained her that night, and of whom she felt the new wound in her heart, called an old gentlewoman of honour which had nursed her and brought her up, unto whom she said, leaning upon her shoulder: “Mother, what two young gentlemen be they which first go forth with the two torches before them?” Unto whom the old gentlewoman told the name of the houses whereof they came. Then she asked her again: “What young gentleman is that which holds the vizard in his hand, with the damask cloak about him?”. bene “It is (quod she) Rhomeo Montesche, the son of your Fathers capital enemy and deadly foe to all your kin”. But the maiden at the only name of Montesche was altogether amazed, despairing for ever to attain to husband her great affectioned friend Rhomeo, for the ancient hatred between those two families. Nevertheless she knew so well how to dissemble her grief and discontented mind, as the old Gentlewoman perceived nothing, who then began to persuade her to retire into her chamber, whom she obeyed, and being in her bed, thinking to take her wonted rest, a great tempest of divers thoughts began to environ and trouble her mind, in such wise as she was not able to close her eyes, but turning here and there, fantasied diverse things in her thought, sometimes purposed to cut of the whole attempt of that amorous practice, sometimes to continue the same. Thus was the poor pucell vexed with two contraries, the one comforted her to pursue her intent, the other proposed the imminent peril whereunto indiscreetly she headlong threw herself. 30. Iulietta is worried that Rhomeo might want to dishonour her. [DP:12] [BAN:25] [BOA:30] [BR:33]And after she had wondered of long time in this amorous Labyrinth, she knew not whereupon to resolve, but wept incessantly, and accused herself, saying: “Ah Caitiff and miserable creature, from whence do rise these unaccustomed travails which I feel in mind, provoking me to loose my rest: but unfortunate wretch, what doe I know if that young Gentleman doe love me as he sayeth. It may be under the veil of sugared words he goeth about to steal away mine honour, to be revenged of my Parents which have offended his, and by that means to my everlasting reproach to make me the fable of the Verona people”. 31. Iulietta changes her mind and believes that Rhomeo’s beauty can only reflect moral Integrity. [DP:12] [BAN:26] [BOA:31] [BR:34]Afterwards suddenly as she condemned that which she suspected in the beginning, said: Is it possible that under such beauty and rare comeliness, disloyalty and Treason may have their siege and lodging? If it be true that the face is the faithful messenger of the minds conceit, I may be assured that he doeth love me: for I marked so many changed colours in his face in time of his talk with me, and saw him so transported and besides himself, as I cannot wish any other more certain luck of love, wherein I will persist immutable to the last gasp of life, to the intent I may have him to be my husband. 32. Iulietta thinks that their marriage might appease the feud. [DP:12] [BAN:27] [BR:35] [BOA:32]For it may so come to pass, as this new alliance shall engender a perpetual peace and amity between his house and mine”. 33. Iulietta sees Rhomeo pass under her window several times. He eventually finds a way to enter her garden at night. [BAN:28] [DP:14] [BOA:33] [BR:37] [BR:39] [BR:40]Arresting then upon this determination still, as she saw Rhomeo passing before her Fathers gate, she showed herself with merry countenance, and followed him so with look of eye, until she had lost his sight.

  And continuing this manner of life for certain days, Rhomeo not able to content himself with looks, daily did behold and mark the situation of the house, and one day amongst others he espied Iulietta at her chamber window, bounding upon a narrow lane, right over against which Chamber he had a garden, which was the cause that Rhomeo fearing discovery of their love, began the day time to pass no more before the gate, but so soon as the night with his brown mantel had covered the earth, he walked alone up and down that little street. 34. Rhomeo walks past Iulietta’s window and she sees him in the moonlight. [DP:15] [BAN:29] [BOA:34] [BR:43]And after he had bene there many times, missing the chiefest cause of his coming, Iulietta impatient of her evil, one night repaired to her window, and perceived through the brightness of the Moon her friend Rhomeo under her window, no less attended for, than he himself was waiting 35. Iulietta worries about Rhomeo’s safety. He swears that he will be her servant. [DP:15] [BAN:30] [BOA:35] [BR:46] [R&J-Q1:17.d] [R&J-Q2:17.d]Then she secretly with tears in her eyes, and with voice interrupted by sighs, said: “Signor Rhomeo, methinks that you hazard your person too much, and commit the same into great danger at this time of the night, to protrude your self to the mercy of them which mean you little good. Who if they had taken would have cut you in pieces, and mine honour (which I esteem dearer than my life,) hindered and suspected for ever”. “Madame” answered Rhomeo, “my life is in the hand of God, who only can dispose the same: howbeit if any man had sought means to bereave me of life, I should (in the presence of you) have made him known what mine ability had bene to defend the same. Notwithstanding life is not so dear, and of such estimation with me, but that I could vouchsafe to sacrifice the same for your sake: and although my mishap had ben so great, as to be dispatched in that place, yet had I no cause to be sorry therefore, except it had bene by losing the means and way how to make you understand the good will and duty which I bear you: desiring not to conserve the same for any commodity that I hope to have thereby, nor for any other respect, but only to love, serve, and honour you, so long as breath shall remain in me”. 36. Iulietta tells him that they either get married or he should go away. [DP:17] [BAN:31] [BOA:36] [BR:47] [R&J-Q1:17.i] [R&J-Q2:17.i]So soon as he had made an end of his talk, love and pity began to seize upon the heart of Iulietta, and leaning her head upon her hand, having her face all besprent with tears, she said unto Rhomeo: “Sir Rhomeo, I pray you not to renew that grief again: for the only memory of such inconvenience, makes me to counterpoise between death and life, my heart being so united with yours, as you cannot receive the least injury in this world, wherein I shall not be so great a partaker as your self: beseeching you for conclusion, that if you desire your own health and mind, to declare unto me in few words, what your determination is to attain: for if you covet any other secrete thing at my hands, more than mine honour can well allow, you are marvellously deceived: but if your desire be godly, and that the friendship which you protest to bear me, be founded upon virtue, and to be concluded by marriage, receiving me for your wife and lawful spouse, you shall have such part in me, as whereof without any regard to the obedience and reverence that I owe to my parents, or to the ancient enmity of our families, I will make you the only Lord and master, and of all the things that I possess, being prest and ready in all points to follow your commandment. But if your intent be otherwise, and think to reap the fruit of my virginity, under pretence of wanton amity, you be greatly deceived, and doe pray you to avoid and suffer me from henceforth to live in rest amongst mine equals”. 37. Rhomeo promises that he will talk to Friar Laurence and they part. [BAN:32] [BOA:37] [BR:48] [R&J-Q1:17.j] [R&J-Q2:17.j] [R&J-Q2:17.k]Rhomeo which looked for none other thing holding up his hands to the heavens, with incredible joy and contentation, answered: “Madame for so much as it hath pleased you to doe me that honour to accept me for such a one, I accord and consent to your request, and doe offer unto you the best part of my heart, which shall remain with you for gauge and sure testimony of my saying, until such time as God shall give me leave to make you the entire owner and possessor of the same. And to the intent I may begin mine enterprise, tomorrow I will to the Friar Laurence for counsel in the same, who besides that he is my ghostly Father, is accustomed to give me instruction in all my other secrete affairs, and fail not bene (if you please) to meet me again in this place at this very hour, to the intent I may give you to understand the devise between him and me”, which she liked very well, and ended their talk for that time. 38. Rhomeo finds no other satisfaction than pleasant words. [DP:17] [BAN:31] [BOA:38] [BR:49] [R&J-Q2:17.g]Rhomeo receiving none other favour at her hands for that night, but only words. 39. Description of Friar Laurence as a man respected by many. [DP:20] [BAN:33] [BOA:39] [BR:50] [R&J-Q1:18.a] [R&J-Q2:18.a]This Friar Laurence of whom hereafter we shall make more ample mention, was an ancient Doctor of Divinity, of the order of the Friars Minors, who besides the happy profession which he had made in study of holy writ, was very skilful in Philosophy, and a great searcher of nature secrets, and exceeding famous in Magic knowledge, and other hidden and secret sciences, which nothing diminished his reputation, because he did not abuse the same. And this Friar through his virtue and piety, had so well won the citizens hearts of Verona, as he was almost the confessor to them all, and of men generally reverenced and beloved: and many times for his great prudence was called by the lords of the city, to the hearing of their weighty causes. And amongst other he was greatly favoured by the lord of Escale, that time the principal governor of Verona, and of the family of Montesches, and of the Capellets, and of many other. 40. Rhomeo confesses his secret to the Friar and asks him to marry him to Iulietta. [DP:21] [BAN:34] [BOA:40] [BR:51] [R&J-Q1:18.c] [R&J-Q2:18.c]The young Rhomeo (as we have already declared) from his tender age, bare a certain particle amity to Friar Laurence, and departed to him his secrets, by means whereof so soon as he was gone from Iulietta, went straight to the Friars Franciscans, where from point to point he discoursed the success of his love to that good father and the conclusion of marriage between him and Iulietta, adding upon the end of talk, that he would rather choose shameful death, than to fail her of his promise. 41. Friar Laurence tries to dissuade Rhomeo. [BOA:41] [BR:52] [R&J-Q1:18.d] [R&J-Q2:18.d]To whom the good Friar after he had debated divers matters, and proposed all the inconveniences of that secrete marriage, exhorted him to more mature deliberation of the same: notwithstanding, all the alleged persuasions were not able to revoke his promise. 42. He eventually consents as he thinks that the marriage may help assuage the feud. [DP:22] [BAN:35] [BOA:42] [BR:54] [R&J-Q1:18.e] [R&J-Q2:18.e]Wherefore the Friar vanquished with his stubbornness, and also forecasting in his mind that the marriage might be some means of reconciliation of those two houses, in the end agreed to his request, entreating him, that he might have one day respit for leisure to excogitate what was best to be done. 43. Iulietta discloses her secret love to the nurse, who eventually promises to help her. [BAN:37] [BOA:43] [BR:58]But if Rhomeo for his part was careful to provide for his affairs, Iulietta likewise did her endeavour. For seeing that she had none about her to whom she might discover her passions, she devised to impart the whole to her nurse which lay in her chamber, appointed to wait upon her, to whom she committed the entire secrets of the love between Rhomeo and her. And although the old woman in the beginning resisted Iulietta her intent, yet in the end she knew so well how to persuade and win her, that she promised in all that she was able to do, to be at her commandment. 44. The nurse goes to Rhomeo to enquire about how to proceed. [BAN:42] [BOA:44] [BR:59] [R&J-Q1:19.e] [R&J-Q2:19.e]And then she sent her with all diligence to speak to Rhomeo, and to know of him by what means they might be married, and that he would do her to understand the determination between Friar Laurence and him. 45. Rhomeo instructs the nurse to accompany Iulietta to shrine the following Saturday. [BAN:42] [BOA:45] [BR:59] [BR:64] [R&J-Q1:19.e] [R&J-Q2:19.e]Whom Rhomeo answered, how the first day wherein he had informed Friar Laurence of the matter, the said Friar deferred answer until the next, which was the very same, and that it was not past one hour sithens he returned with final resolution, and that Friar Laurence and he had devised, that she the Saturday following, should crave leave of her mother to go to confession, and to repair to the church of saint Francis, where in a certain chapel secretly they should be married, praying her in any wise not to fail to be there. 46. Iulietta is allowed by her mother to go to confession and is escorted to church by the nurse and another woman. [DP:23] [BAN:46] [BOA:46] [BR:65]Which thing she brought to pass with such discretion, as her mother agreed to her request: and accompanied only with her governess, and a young maiden, she repaired thither at the determined day and time. And so soon as she was entered the church, called for the good Doctor Friar Laurence, unto whom answer was made that he was in the shriving chapel, and forthwith advertisement was given him of her coming. 47. Friar Laurence accompanies Iulietta to the confessional, where they find Rhomeo. [DP:24] [BAN:48] [BOA:47] [BR:66] [R&J-Q1:21.a] [R&J-Q2:21.a]So soon as Friar Laurence was certified of Iulietta, he went into the body of the Church, and willed the old woman and young maiden to go hear service, and that when he had heard the confession of Iulietta, he would send for them again. Iulietta being entered a little Cell with Friar Laurence, he shut fast the door as he was wont to do, where Rhomeo and he had bene together shut fast in, the space of one whole hour before. 48. Friar Laurence celebrates the secret marriage (Iulietta receives the ring). [DP:25] [BAN:49] [BOA:48] [BR:68] [R&J-Q1:21.a] [R&J-Q2:21.a]Then Friar Laurence after that he had shrived them, said to Iulietta: “Daughter, as Rhomeo here present hath certified me, you be agreed and contented to take him to husband, and he likewise you for his espouse and wife. Do you now still persist and continue in that mind?” The Lovers answered that they desired none other thing. The Friar seeing their conformed and agreeable wills, after he had discoursed somewhat upon the commendation of marriage dignity, pronounced the usual words of the Church, and she having received the ring from Rhomeo, they rose up before the Friar, who said unto them: “If you have any other thing to confer together, do the same with speed: for I purpose that Rhomeo shall go from hence so secretly as he can”. 49. Rhomeo tells Iulietta to send him the old nurse and he will climb up to Iulietta’s window by way of a corded ladder. [DP:25] [BAN:38] [BOA:49] [BR:69] [R&J-Q1:19.e] [R&J-Q1:20.c] [R&J-Q2:19.e] [R&J-Q2:20.c]Rhomeo sorry to go from Iulietta said secretly unto her, that she should send unto him after diner the old woman, and that he would cause to be made a corded ladder the same evening, thereby to climb up to her chamber window, where at more leisure they would devise of their affairs. 50. The two lovers part. [DP:26] [BAN:50] [BOA:50] [BR:70]Things determined between them, either of them retired to their house with incredible contentation, attending the happy hour for consummation of their marriage. 51. Rhomeo informs his servant, Pietro, and orders him to get him a cord ladder. [BAN:39] [BOA:51] [BR:73] [R&J-Q1:19.e] [R&J-Q2:19.e]When Rhomeo was come home to his house, he declared wholly what had passed between him and Iulietta, unto a servant of his called Pietro, whose fidelity he had so greatly tried, as he durst have trusted him with his life, and commanded him with expedition to provide a ladder of cords with 2 strong hooks of iron fastened to both ends, which he easily did, because they were much used in Italy. 52. Iulietta sends her nurse to Rhomeo, who gives her the ladder. [BOA:52] [BR:74]Iulietta did not forget in the evening about five of the clock, to send the old woman to Rhomeo, who having prepared all things necessary, caused the ladder to be delivered unto her, and prayed her to require Iulietta the same evening not fail to be at the accustomed place. 53. Narrator’s comment on lovers’ impatience (Biblical ref. to Joshua 10). [BOA:53] [BR:75] [R&J-Q1:27.a] [R&J-Q2:27.a]But if this journey seemed long to these two passioned lovers, let other judge, that have at other times assayed the like: for every minute of an hour seemed to them a thousand years, so that if they had had power to commande the heavens (as Josua did the sun) the earth had incontinently bene shadowed with darkest clouds. 54. Rhomeo arrives at Iulietta’s house and climbs to her chamber. [BAN:40] [BAN:41] [BAN:51] [BOA:54] [BR:76]The appointed hour come, Rhomeo put on the most sumptuous apparel he had, and conducted by good fortune near to the place where his heart took life, was so fully determined of his purpose, as easily he climbed up the garden wall. Being arrived hard to the window, he perceived Iulietta, who had already so well fastened the ladder to draw him up, as without any danger at all he entered her chamber, which was so clear as the day, by reason of the tapers of virgin wax, which Iulietta had caused to be lighted, that she might the better behold her Rhomeo. 55. Rhomeo and Iulietta kiss and talk, rejoicing for their happiness and remembering their past sorrows. [BOA:55] [BR:77]Iulietta for her part was but in her night kerchief: who so soon as she perceived him colled him about the neck, and after she had kissed and rekissed him a million of times, began to embrace him between her arms, having no power to speak unto him, but by sighs only, holding her mouth close against his, and being in this trance beheld him with pitiful eye, which made him to live and die together. And afterwards somewhat come to her self, she said with sighs deeply fetched from the bottom of her heart: “Ah Rhomeo, the example of all virtue and gentleness, you be most heartily welcome to this place, wherein for your lack and absence, and for fear of your person, I have gushed forth so many tears, as the spring is almost dry: but now that I hold you between my arms, let death and fortune doe what they list, for I count my self more than satisfied of all my sorrows past, by the favour alone of your presence”: whom Rhomeo with weeping eye, giving over silence answered: “Madame forsomuch as I never received so much of fortunes grace, as to make you feel by lively experience what power you had over me, and the torment every minute of the day sustained for your occasion, I do assure you the least grief that vexeth me for your absence, is a thousand times more painful than death, which long time or this had cut of the thread of my life, if the hope of this happy journey had not been, which paying me now the just tribute of my weepings past, maketh me better content and more glad, than if the whole world were at my commandment, beseeching you (without further memory of ancient grief) to take advice in time to come how we may content our passionate hearts, and to sort our affairs with such wisdom and discretion as our enemies without advantage may let us continue the remnant of our days in rest and quiet”. 56. The urse urges them to stop talking and waste no more time. [BOA:56] [BR:78]And as Iulietta was about to make answer, the old woman came in the meantime, and said unto them: “He that wasteth time in talk, recovereth the same too late. 57. The nurse shows them the bed as the site of a love battlefield. [BOA:57] [BR:79]But for so much as either of you hath endured such mutual pains, behold (quod she) a camp which I have made ready”, (showing them the field bed which she had prepared and furnished,) 58. They consummate the marriage. Love as a war metaphor. [DP:27] [BAN:52] [BOA:58] [BR:81]wherunto they easily agreed, and being then between the sheets in privy bed, after they had gladded and cherished themselves with all kind of delicate embracements which love was able to devise, Rhomeo unloosing the holy lines of virginity, took possession of the place, which was not yet besieged with such joy and contentation as they can judge which have assayed like delights. 59. At dawn Rhomeo takes leave and promises to return in the same way until it is safe to reveal their marriage. [DP:27] [BAN:53] [BOA:59] [BR:82] [R&J-Q1:30.a] [R&J-Q2:30.a] [R&J-Q1:30.c] [R&J-Q2:30.c]Their marriage thus consummate, Rhomeo perceiving the morning make too hasty approach, took his leave, making promise that he would not fail within a day or two to resort again to the place by like means and semblable time, until Fortune had provided sure occasion unfearfully to manifest their marriage to the whole world. 60. They meet for a few months but then envious Fortune changes the happy course of their love. [DP:28] [BOA:60] [BR:84] [R&J-Q2:30.c]And thus a month or twain, they continued their joyful minds to their incredible satisfaction, until Lady fortune envious of their prosperity, turned her wheel to tumble them into such a bottomless pit, as they paid her usury for their pleasures past, by a certain most cruel and pitiful death, as you shall understand hereafter by the discourse that followeth. 61. All the while Capellets and Montesches have kept looking for an occasion to rekindle the feud and at Easter a new brawl breaks out near the Boursari gate. [DP:29] [BAN:55] [BOA:61] [BR:85] [R&J-Q1:22.b] [R&J-Q2:22.b]Now as we have before declared, the Capellets and the Montesches were not so well reconciled by the Lord of Verona, but that there rested in them such sparks of ancient displeasures, as either parts waited but for some light occasion to draw togethers, which they did in the Easter holy days, (as bloody men commonly be most willingly disposed after a good time to commit some nefarious deed) besides the gate of Boursarie leading to the old castle of Verona, a troupe of the Capellets reencountered with certain of the Montesches, and without other woordes began to set upon them. 62. Description of Thibault, chief of the Capulets. [BAN:56] [BOA:62] [BR:86] [R&J-Q1:19.b] [R&J-Q2:19.b]And the Capellets had for chief of their glorious enterprise one called Thibault cousin Germaine to Iulietta, a young man strongly made, and of good experience in arms, 63. Thibault starts the quarrel. [BAN:56] [BOA:63] [BR:87] [R&J-Q1:22.b] [R&J-Q2:22.b]who exhorted his Companions with stout stomachs to repress the boldness of the Montesches, that there should from that time forth no memory of them be left at all. And the rumour of this fray was dispersed throughout all the corners of Verona, that succour should come from all parts of the city to depart the same. 64. Rhomeo arrives and tries to part the enemies, yet to no avail. [DP:30] [BAN:57] [BOA:64] [BR:88] [R&J-Q1:22.c] [R&J-Q2:22.c]Whereof Rhomeo advertised who walked alongs the city with certain of his companions, hasted him speedily to the place where the slaughter of his parents and allies were committed: and after he had well advised and behold many wounded and hurt on both sides, he said to his companions: “My friends let us part then, for they be so flesht one upon an other, as they will all be hewed to pieces before the game be done”. And saying so, he thrust himself amids the troupe, and did no more but part the blows on either side, crying upon them aloud. “My friends, no more it is time henceforth that our quarel cease. For besides the provocation of Gods just wrath, our two families be slanderous to the whole world, and cause this common wealth to grow unto disorder”. But they were so eager and furious one against the other, as they gave no audience to Rhomeo his counsel, and bent themselves to kill, dismember, and tear each other in pieces. 65. Thibault assaults Rhomeo, who does not react by invoking a secret reason that makes him respect his adversary. [BAN:58] [BOA:65] [BR:89] [R&J-Q1:22.d] [R&J-Q2:22.d]And the fight was so cruel and outrageous between them, as they which looked on, were amazed to see them endure those blows, for the ground was all covered with arms, legs, thighs, and blood, wherein no sign of cowardness appeared, and maintained their fight so long, that none was able to judge who had the better, until that Thibault cousin to Iulietta inflamed with ire and rage, turned towards Rhomeo, thinking with a foin to run him through. But he was so well armed and defended with a privy coat which he wore ordinarily for the doubt he had of the Capellets, as the prick rebounded: unto whom Rhomeo made answer: “Thibault thou maist know by the patience which I have had until this present time, that I came not hither to fight with thee or thine, but to seek peace and atonement between us, and if thou thinkest that for default of courage I have failed mine endeavour, thou doest great wrong to my reputation. And impute this my sufferance to some other particular respect, rather than to want of stomach. Wherefore abuse me not, but be content with this great effusion of blood, and murders already committed, and provoke me not I beseech thee to pass the bounds of my good will and mind”. 66. Thibault ignores Rhomeo’s requests and hits him again. [BAN:59] [BOA:66] [BR:90]“Ah Traitor”, said Thibault, “thou thinkest to save thy self by the plot of thy pleasant tong, but see that thou defend thy self, else presently I will make thee feel that thy tongue shall not guard thy corpse, nor yet be the buckler to defend the same from present death”. And saying so, he gave him a blow with such fury, as had not other warded the same, he had cut of his head from his shoulders. 67. Rhomeo gets incensed and kills Thibault. [DP:31] [BAN:60] [BOA:67] [BR:91] [R&J-Q1:24.a] [R&J-Q2:24.a]And the one was no readier to lend, but the other incontinently was able to pay again, for he being not only wroth with the blow that he had received, but offended with the injury which the other had done, began to pursue his enemy with such courage and vivacity, as at the third blow with his sword, he caused him to fall backward stark dead upon the ground, with a prick vehemently thrust into his throat, which he followed till his sword appeared through the hinder part of the same, by reason whereof the conflict ceased. 68. The narrator mentions Thibault’s high-class status. Soldiers are sent to apprehend Roméo, and he flees to Friar Laurence. [BAN:61] [BOA:68] [BR:93] [R&J-Q1:25.a] [R&J-Q2:25.a]For besides that Thibault was the chief of his company, he was also born of one of the noblest houses within the city, which caused the potestate to assemble his soldiers with diligence for the apprehension and imprisonment of Rhomeo, who seeing ill fortune at hand, in secret wise conveyed him self to Friar Laurence, at the Friars Franciscans. 69. Friar Laurence hides Rhomeo. [BOA:69] [BR:116]And the Friar understanding of his fact, kept him in a certain secret place of his Convent, until Fortune did otherwise provide for his safe going abroad. 70. The Capulets plead for punishment. [DP:32] [BAN:63] [BOA:70] [BR:94] [R&J-Q1:26.a] [R&J-Q2:26.a]The bruit spread throughout the city, of this chance done upon the Lord Thibault, the Capellets in mourning weeds caused the dead body to be carried before the signiory of Verona, so well to move them to pity, as to demand justice for the murder: 71. The Montagues defend Rhomeo. [BAN:64] [BOA:71] [BR:95]before whom came also the Montesches, declaring the innocence of Rhomeo, and the wilful assault of the other. 72. Rhomeo is banished. [DP:32] [BAN:65] [BOA:72] [BR:97] [R&J-Q1:26.c] [R&J-Q2:26.c]The Counsel assembled and witnesses heard on both parts, a straight commandment was given by the Lord of the city to give over their weapons, and touching the offense of Rhomeo because he had killed the other in his own defence, he was banished Verona for ever. 73. People in town mourn for Thibault. [BAN:66] [BOA:73] [BR:99]This common misfortune published throughout the city was generally sorrowed and lamented. Some complained the death of the Lord Thibault, so well for his dexterity in arms, as for the hope of his great good service in time to come, if he had not bene prevented by such cruel death. 74. People in town (especially women) mourn for Roméo’s misfortune. [BOA:74] [BR:100]Other bewailed (specially the Ladies and Gentlewomen) the overthrow of young Rhomeo, who besides his beauty and good grace wherewith he was enriched, had a certain natural allurement, by virtue whereof he drew unto him the hearts of each man, like as the stony adamant doth the cancered iron, in such wise as the whole nation and people of Verona lamented his mischance: 75. Iulietta despairs for Rhomeo’s lot. [DP:34] [BAN:66] [BOA:75] [BR:101] [R&J-Q1:27.e] [R&J-Q2:27.e]but above all, unfortunate Iulietta, who advertised both of the death of her cousin Thibault, and of the banishment of her husband, made the air sound with infinite number of mourneful plaints and miserable lamentations. Then feeling her self too much outraged with extreme passion, she went into her chamber, and overcome with sorrow threw her self upon her bed, where she began to reinforce her dolor after so strange fashion, as the most constant would have bene moved to pity. 76. Iulietta curses the “unhappy window” which has let in Rhomeo and given her pleasure and deadly sorrow. [BOA:76] [BR:102]Then like one out of her wits, she gazed here and there, and by Fortune beholding the window whereat Rhomeo was wont to enter into her chamber, cried out: “Oh unhappy window, Oh entry most unlucky, wherein were woven the bitter toil of my former mishaps, if by thy means I have received at other times some light pleasure or transitory contentation, thou now makest me pay a tribute so rigorous and painful, as my tender body not able any longer to support the same, shall henceforth open the gate to that life where the ghost discharged from this mortal burden, shall seek in some place else more assured rest. 77. Iulietta blames Rhomeo for breaking the truce between their families and falls into a sort of trance. [BOA:77] [BR:103] [R&J-Q1:27.g] [R&J-Q2:27.g]Ah Rhomeo, Rhomeo, when acquaintance first began between us, and I reclined mine ears unto thy suborned promises, confirmed with so many oaths, I would never have believed that in place of our continued amity, and in appeasing of the hatred of our houses, thou wouldest have sought occasion to break the same by an act so vituperous and shameful, whereby thy fame shallbe spotted for ever, and I miserable wretch desolate of spouse and companion. But if thou had bene so greedy after the Capellets blood, wherefore didst thou spare the dear blood of mine own heart when so many times, and in such secret place the same was at the mercy of thy cruel hands? The victory which thou shouldest have gotten over me, had it not bene glorious enough for thine ambitious mind, but for more triumphant solemnity to be crowned with the blood of my dearest kinsman? Now get thee hence therefore into some other place to deceive some other, so unhappy as my self. Never come again in place where I am, for no excuse shall hereafter take hold to assuage mine offended mind. In the meantime I shall lament the rest of my heavy life, with such store of tears, as my body dried up from all humidity, shall shortly search relief in earth.” And having made an end of those her words, her heart was so grievously strained, as she could neither weep nor speak, and stood so immoveable, as if she had bene in a trance. 78. Iulietta now blames herself for being unfair to her Rhomeo. [BOA:78] [BR:104] [R&J-Q1:27.i] [R&J-Q2:27.i]Then being somewhat come again unto her self, with feeble voice she said: “Ah murderous tongue of other mens honour, how darest thou so infamously to speak of him whom his very enemies doe commend and praise? How presumest thou to impute the blame upon Rhomeo, whose unguiltiness and innocent deed every man alloweth? Where from henceforth shall be his refuge? sith she which ought to be the only bulwark, and assured rampire of his distress, doth pursue and defame him? Receive, receive then Rhomeo, the satisfaction of mine ingratitude by the sacrifice which I shall make of my proper life, and so the fault which I have committed against thy loyalty, shalbe made open to the world, thou being revenged and my self punished”. 79. Iulietta faints as if she is dead. [BOA:79] [BR:105] [R&J-Q1:27.n] [R&J-Q2:27.n]And thinking to use some further talk, all the powers of her body failed her with signs of present death. 80. The nurse looks for Iulietta and finally finds her in her chamber. [BOA:80] [BR:107]But the good old woman which could not imagine the cause of Iulietta her long absence, doubted very much that she suffered some passion, and sought her up and down in every place within her fathers palace, until at length she found her lying a long upon her bed, all the outward parts of her body so cold as marble. 81. The old nurse believes her dead but manages to wake her up. [BOA:81] [BR:108]But the good old woman which thought her to be dead, began to cry like one out of her wits, saying: “Ah dear daughter and nurse-child, how much doeth thy death now grieve me at the very heart?” And as she was feeling all the parts of her body, she perceived some spark of life to be yet within the same, which caused her to call her many times by her name, till at length she brought her out of her sound. Then she said unto her: “Why Iulietta mine own dear darling, what mean you by this turmoiling of your self? I can not tell from whence this your behaviour and that immoderate heaviness doe proceed, but well I wot that within this hour I thought to have accompanied you to the grave”. 82. The girl tells her about her grief. [BOA:82] [BR:110]“Alas good mother (answered woeful Iulietta) doe you not most evidently perceive and see what just cause I have to sorrow and complain, losing at one instant two persons of the world which were unto me most dear?” 83. The nurse comforts Iulietta. [BOA:83] [BR:111]“Methink, answered the good woman, that it is not seemly for a Gentlewoman of your degree to fall into such extremity. For in time of tribulation wisdom should most prevail. And if the Lord Thibault be dead, do you think to get him again by tears? What is he that doth not accuse his overmuch presumption? Would you that Rhomeo had done that wrong to him, and his house, to suffer himself outraged and assailed by one, to whom in manhood and prowess he is not inferior? Suffiseth you that Rhomeo is alive, and his affairs in such estate, who in time may be called home again from banishment, for he is a great lord, and as you know well allied and favoured of all men: wherefore arm your self from henceforth with patience. For albeit that fortune doth estrange him from you for a time, yet sure I am, that hereafter she will restore him unto you again with greater joy and contentation than before. 84. The nurse promises her to find out where Rhomeo is. [BOA:84] [BR:112] [R&J-Q1:27.o] [R&J-Q2:27.o]And to the end that we be better assured in what state he is, if you will promise me to give over your heaviness, I will today know of Friar Laurence whether he is gone.” 85. Iulietta agrees and the nurse goes to S. Francis where she is told that Rhomeo would meet Iulietta at night. Narrator’s comment on the characters’ state of mind (sea storm simile). [BAN:68] [BOA:85] [BR:113] [BR:118] [R&J-Q1:28.f] [R&J-Q2:28.f]To which request Iulietta agreed, and then the good woman repaired to S. Francis, where she found Friar Laurence, who told her that the same night Rhomeo would not fail at his accustomed hour to visit Iulietta, and there to do her to understand what he purposed to doe in time to come. This journey then fared like the voyages of mariners, who after they have bene tost by great and troublous tempest, seeing some sun beam pierce the heavens to lighten the land, assure them selves again, and thinking to have avoided shipwreck, and suddenly the seas begin to swell, the waves do roar, with such vehemence and noise, as if they were fallen again into greater danger than before. 86. The lovers meet in Iulietta’s chamber and despair. [DP:37] [BAN:69] [BAN:70] [BOA:86] [BR:127]The assigned hour come, Rhomeo failed not according to his promise to be in his Garden, where he found his furniture prest to mount the chamber of Iulietta, who with displayed arms, began so straightly to embrace him, as it seemed that the soul would have abandoned her body. And they two more than a large Quarter of an hour were in such agony, as they were not able to pronounce one word, and wetting each others face fast closed together, the tears trickeled down in such abundance, as they seemed to be thoroughly bathed therein. 87. Rhomeo’s speech on inconstant Fortune and report of his own banishment. [BOA:87] [BR:128]Which Rhomeo perceiving, and thinking to stay those immoderate tears, said unto her: “Mine own dearest friend Iulietta, I am not now determined to recite the particulars of the strange haps of frail and inconstant Fortune, who in a moment hoisteth a man up to the highest degree of her wheel, and by and by, in less space than in the twinkling of an eye, she throweth him down again so low, as more misery is prepared for him in one day, than favour in one hundred years: which I now prove, and have experience in my self, which have bene nourished delicately amongs my friends, and maintained in such prosperous state, as you doe little know, (hoping for the full perfection of my felicity) by means of our marriage to have reconciled our parents and friends, and to conduct the residue of my life, according to the scope and lot determined by almighty God: and nevertheless all mine enterprises be put back, and my purposes turned clean contrary, in such wise as from henceforth I must wander like a vagabond through diverse provinces, and sequestrate my self from my friends, without assured place of mine abode, which I desire to let you weet, to the intent you may be exhorted, in time to come, patiently to bear so well mine absence, as that which it shall please God to appoint”. 88. Iulietta asks Rhomeo to go with him dressed up as a man otherwise she will kill herself. [DP:38] [BAN:71] [BOA:88] [BR:129]But Iulietta, all affright with tears and mortal agonies, would not suffer him to pass any further, but interrupting his purpose, said unto him: “Rhomeo, how canst thou be so hard hearted and void of all pity, to leave me here alone, besieged with so many deadly miseries? There is neither hour nor minute, wherein death doth not appear a thousand times before me: What and yet my mishap is such, as I can not die, and therefore doe manifestly perceive, that the same death preserveth my life, of purpose to delight in my griefs, and triumph over my evils. And thou like the minister and tyrant of her cruelty, doest make no conscience (for ought that I can see) having achieved the sum of thy desires and pleasures on me, to abandon and forsake me. Whereby I well perceive, that all the laws of amity are dead and utterly extinguished, for so much as he, in whom I had greatest hope and confidence, and for whose sake I am become an enemy to my self, doth disdain and contemn me. No no Rhomeo, thou must fully resolve thy self upon one of these 2 points, either to see me incontinently thrown down headlong from this high window after thee or else to suffer me to accompany thee into that country or place whether Fortune shall guide thee: for my heart is so much transformed into thine, that so soon as I shall understand of thy departure, presently my life will depart this woeful body: the continuance whereof I doe not desire for any other purpose, but only to delight my self in thy presence, and to be partaker of thy misfortunes. And therefore if ever there lodged any pity in the heart of Gentleman, I beseech thee Rhomeo with all humility, that it may now find place in thee, and that thou wilt vouchsafe to receive me for thy servant, and the faithful companion of thy mishaps. And if thou think that thou canst not conveniently receive me in the estate and habit of a wife, who shall let me to change mine apparel? Shall I be the first that have used like shifts, to escape the tyranny of parents? Dost thou doubt that my service will not be so good unto thee as that of Petre thy servant? Will my loyalty and fidelity be less than his? My beauty, which at other times thou hast so greatly commended, is it not esteemed of thee? My tears, my love, and the ancient pleasures and delights that you have taken in me, shall they be in oblivion?” 89. Rhomeo dissuades Iulietta from going with him, promising her that his exile will soon be called off. [DP:39] [BAN:72] [BOA:89] [BR:130]Rhomeo seeing her in these alterations, fearing that worse inconvenience would chance, took her again between his arms, and kissing her amorously, said: “Iulietta, the only mistress of my heart, I pray thee in the name of God, and for the fervent love which thou bearest unto me, to doe away those vain cogitations, except thou mean to seek and hazard the destruction of us both: for if thou persevere in this determination, there is no remedy but we must both perish: for so soon as thine absence shall be known, thy father will make such earnest pursuit after us, that we can not choose but be descried and taken, and in the end cruelly punished, I as a thief and stealer of thee, and thou as a disobedient daughter to her father. And so instead of pleasant and quiet life, our days shalbe abridged by most shameful death. But if thou wilt recline thy self to reason, (the right rule of humane life,) and for the time abandon our mutual delights, I will take such order in the time of my banishment, as within iij or iiij months without any delay, I shalbe revoked home again. But if it fall out otherwise (as I trust not,) how so ever it happen, I will come again unto thee, and with the help of my friends will fetch thee from Verona by strong hand, not in counterfeit apparel as a stranger, but like my spouse and perpetual companion. In the meantime quiet your self, and be sure that nothing else but death shall divide and put us asunder”. 90. Iulietta agrees upon the condition that Rhomeo sends her news through Friar Laurence. [BOA:90] [BR:131]The reasons of Rhomeo so much prevailed with Iulietta, as she made him this answer: “My dear friend I will doe nothing contrary to your will and pleasure. And to what place so ever you repair, my heart shall be your own, in like sort as you have given yours to be mine. In the meanwhile I pray you not to fail oftentimes to advertise me by Friar Laurence, in what state your affairs be, and specially of the place of your abode”. 91. The lovers spend the night together. [BOA:91] [BR:132]Thus these two poor lovers passed the night together, 92. At dawn the lovers sadly part. [DP:40] [BOA:92] [BAN:73] [BR:133] [R&J-Q1:30.c] [R&J-Q1:30.c]until the day began to appear, which did separate them, to their extreme sorrow and grief. 93. Rhomeo goes to Friar Laurence. [BAN:74] [BOA:93] [BR:134]Rhomeo having taken leave of Iulietta, went to S. Francis, 94. Romeo leaves dressed up as a merchant and once in Mantua sends back his man. He finds lodging and tries to keep away despondency. [DP:41] [BAN:75] [BOA:94] [BR:135] [BR:136]and after he had advertised Friar Laurence of his affairs, departed from Verona in the habit of a merchant stranger, and used such expedition, as without hurt he arrived at Mantova, (accompanied only with Petre his servant, whom he hastily sent back again to Verona, to serve his father) where he took a house: and living in honourable company, assayed certain months to put away the grief which so tormented him. 95. Iulietta cannot but despair. Iulietta’s mother urges her to to give up suffering for Thibault’s death. [DP:42] [BAN:76] [BOA:95] [BR:137] [R&J-Q1:31.a] [R&J-Q2:31.a]But during the time of his absence, miserable Iulietta could not so cloke her sorrow, but that through the evil colour of her face, her inward passion was descried. By reason whereof her mother, who heard her oftentimes sighing, and incessantly complaining, could not forbear to say unto her: “Daughter if you continue long after this sort, you will hasten the death of your good Father and me, who love you so dearly as our own lives: wherefore henceforth moderate your heaviness, and endeavour your self to be merry: think no more upon the death of your cousin Thibault, whom (sith it pleased God to call away) do you think to revoke with tears, and to withstand his almighty will? 96. Iulietta denies that her grief is due to Thibault’s death. [BOA:96] [BR:138]But the poor Gentlewoman not able to dissemble her grief, said unto her: Madame long time it is sithens the last tears for Thibault were poured forth, and I believe that the fountain is so well socked and dried up, as no more will spring in that place”. 97. Iulietta’s mother tries to explore the reasons of her daughter’s grief, but in vain. [BAN:42] [BAN:76] [BOA:97] [BR:139]The mother which could not tell to what effect those words were spoken held her peace, for fear she should trouble her daughter: and certain days after seeing her to continue in heaviness and continual griefs, assayed by all means possible to know, as well of her, as of other the household servants, the occasion of her sorrow, but all in vain: 98. Iulietta’s mother discusses her daughter’s condition with her husband and suggests that they find a good party for her, assuming that she is envious of her mates who are already married. [DP:44] [BAN:78] [BOA:98] [BR:140]wherewith the poor mother vexed beyond measure, purposed to let the Lorde Antonio her husband to understand the case of her daughter. And upon a day seeing him at convenient leisure, she said unto him: “My Lord, if you have marked the countenance of our daughter, and her kind of behaviour sithens the death of the Lord Thibault her cousin, you shall perceive so strange mutation in her, as it will make you to marvel: for she is not only contented to forgoe meat, drink and sleep, but she spendeth her time in nothing else but in weeping and lamentation, delighting to keep her self solitary within her chamber, where she tormeteth her self so outrageously, as if we take not heed, her life is to be doubted, and not able to know the original of her pain, the more difficult shall be the remedy: for albeit that I have sought means by all extremity, yet cannot I learn the cause of her sickness. And where I thought in the beginning, that it proceeded upon the death of her cousin, now I doe manifestly perceive the contrary, specially when she her self did assure me that she had already wept and shed the last tears for him, that she was minded to doe. And uncertain whereupon to resolve, I do think verily that she mourneth for some despite, to see the most part of her companions married, and she yet unprovided, persuading with her self (it may be) that we her parents doe not care for her. Wherefore dear husband, I heartly beseech you for our rest and her quiet, that hereafter you be careful to provide for her some marriage worthy of our state”: 99. Lord Antonio agrees and asks his wife to find out whether she is in love with someone (“as yet she is not attained to the age of xviii years”). [DP:45] [BAN:79] [BOA:99] [BR:141] [R&J-Q2:6.b]whereunto the Lord Antonio willingly agreed, saying unto her: “Wife, I have many times thought upon that whereof you speak, notwithstading sith as yet she is not attained to the age of xviij yeares, I thought to provide a husband at leisure. Nevertheless things being come to these terms, and knowing that virgins chastity is a dangerous treasure, I will be mindful of the same to your contentation, and she matched in such wise, as she shall think the time hitherto well delayed. In the meanwhile mark diligently whether she be in love with any to the end that we have not so great regard to goods, or to the nobility of the house wherein we mean to bestow her, as to the life and health of our daughter, who is to me so dear as I had rather die a beggar without lands or goods, than to bestow her upon one which shall use and entreat her ill”. 100. The Count Lodronne is chosen by Iulietta’s father among many noble suitors; he informs his wife. [DP:45] [BAN:80] [BOA:100] [BR:143]Certain days after that the Lord Antonio had bruited the marriage of his Daughter, many Gentlemen were suiters, so well for the excellency of her beauty, as for her great richesse and revenue.

  But above all others the alliance of a young Earle named Paris, the Count of Lodronne liked the Lord Antonio: unto whom liberally he gave his consent, and told his wife the party upon whom he did mean to bestow his daughter. 101. Iulietta’s mother informs Iulietta. [DP:46] [BAN:80] [BOA:101] [BR:144] [R&J-Q1:11.c] [R&J-Q1:11.d] [R&J-Q1:31.b] [R&J-Q2:11.c] [R&J-Q2:11.d] [R&J-Q2:31.b]The mother very joyful that they had found so honest a gentleman for their daughter caused her secretly to be called before her, doing her to understand what things had passed between her father and the Count Paris, discoursing unto her the beauty and good grace of that young Count, the virtues for which he was commended of all men, joining thereunto for conclusion the great richesse and favour which he had in the goods of fortune, by means whereof she and her friends should live in eternal honour. 102. Iulietta firmly rejects her mother’s proposal. [DP:47] [BAN:81] [BOA:102] [BR:145] [R&J-Q1:31.c] [R&J-Q2:31.c]But Iulietta which had rather to have bene torn in pieces than to agree to the marriage, answered her mother with a more than accustomed stoutness: “Madame, I much marvel, and therewithal am astounded that you being a Lady discrete and honourable, will be so liberal over your daughter as to commit her to the pleasure and will of an other before, you do know how her mind is bent: you may do as it pleaseth you, but of one thing I do well assure you, that if you bring it to pass, it shall be against my will. And touching the regard and estimation of Count Paris, I shall first lose my life before he shall have power to touch any part of my body: which being done, it is you that shall be counted the murderer, by delivering me into the hands of him, whom I neither can, will, or know which way to love. Wherefore I pray you to suffer me henceforth thus to live, without taking any further care of me, for so much as my cruel fortune hath otherwise disposed of me.”103. The mother is taken aback and informs Lord Antonio. [DP:49] [BAN:81] [BOA:103] [BR:146] [R&J-Q1:31.d] [R&J-Q1:32.a] [R&J-Q2:31.d] [R&J-Q2:32.a]The dolorous mother which knew not what judgement to fix upon her daughters answer, like a woman confused and besides her self went to seek the Lord Antonio, unto whom without concealing any part of her daughters answer, she did him understand the whole. 104. Lord Antonio summons Iulietta. [DP:50] [BAN:82] [BOA:104] [BR:147]The good old man offended beyond measure, commanded her incontinently by force to be brought before him, if of her own good will she would not come. 105. Once in front of her father Iulietta despairs and cannot speak for sobs and sighs. [BOA:105] [BR:148]So soon as she came before her father, her eyes full of tears, fell down at his feet, which she bathed with the lukewarm drops that distilled from her eyes in great abundance, and thinking to open her mouth to cry him mercy, the sobs and sighs many times stopped her speech, that she remained dumb not able to frame a word. 106. Antonio gets incensed. He forces her to marry Count Lodrone and go to Villafranca on Tuesday to consent to the marriage. (Reference to Roman fathers). [DP:51] [BAN:84] [BOA:106] [BR:149] [R&J-Q1:32.c] [R&J-Q1:32.d] [R&J-Q1:32.f] [R&J-Q2:32.c] [R&J-Q2:32.d] [R&J-Q2:32.f]But the old man nothing moved with his daughters tears, said unto her in great rage: “Come hither thou unkind and disobedient daughter, hast thou already forgotten how many times thou hast heard spoken at the table, of the puissance and authority our ancient Romane fathers had over their children? Unto whom it was not only lawful to sell, gauge, and otherwise dispose them (in their necessity) at their pleasure, but also which is more, they had absolute power over their death and life? With what irons, with what torments, with what racks would those good fathers chasten and correct thee if they were alive again, to see that ingratitude, misbehaviour and disobedience which thou usest towards thy father, who with many prayers and requests hath provided one of the greatest lords of this province to be thy husband, a gentleman of best renown, and endued with all kind of virtues, of whom thou and I be unworthy, both for the notable masse of goods and substance wherewith he is enriched, as also for the honour and generosity of the house whereof he is descended, and yet thou playest the part of an obstinate and rebellious child against thy fathers will, I take the omnipotence of that almighty God to witness, which hath vouchsafed to bring thee forth into this world, that if upon Tuesday next thou failest to prepare thy self to be at my castle of Villafranco, where the Count Paris purposeth to meet us, and there give thy consent to that which thy mother and I have agreed upon, I will not only deprive thee of my worldly goods, but also will make thee espouse and marry a prison so straight and sharp, as a thousand times thou shalt curse the day and time wherein thou wast born. Wherefore from henceforth take advisement what thou dost, for except the promise be kept which I have made to the Count Paris, I will make thee feel how great the just choler of an offended father is against a child unkind”. 107. Lord Antonio leaves her without waiting for her reply. [DP:51] [BOA:107] [BR:150]And without staying for other answer of his daughter, the old man departed the chamber, and left her upon her knees. 108. Iulietta retires to her room and cries. [BOA:108] [BR:151]Iulietta knowing the fury of her father, fearing to incur his indignation, or to provoke his further wrath, retired for that day into her chamber, and contrived the whole night more in weeping than sleeping. 109. The following morning Iulietta goes to Friar Laurence, informs him of the organized match with Paris and threatens self-slaughter. [DP:58] [BAN:89] [BAN:91] [BAN:93] [BOA:109] [BR:152] [R&J-Q1:33.e] [R&J-Q1:35.a] [R&J-Q2:33.e] [R&J-Q2:35.a]And the next morning feigning to go hear service, she went forth with the woman of her chamber to the Friars, where she caused father Laurence to be called unto her, and prayed him to hear her confession. And when she was upon her knees before him, she began her confession with tears, telling him the great mischief that was prepared for her, by the marriage accorded between her father, and the Count Paris. And for conclusion said unto him: “Sir, for so much as you know that I can not by Gods law be married twice, and that I have but one God, one husband, and one faith, I am determined (when I am from hence) with these two hands which you see joined before you, this day to end my sorrowful life, that my soul may bear witness in the heavens, and my blood upon the earth of my faith and loyalty preserved.” Then having ended her talk, she looked about her, and seemed by her wild countenance, as though she had devised some sinister purpose. 110. The Friar dissuades Iulietta from suicide and offers her his help. [DP:59] [BAN:95] [BOA:110] [BR:153]Wherefore Friar Laurence, astounded beyond measure, fearing lest she would have executed that which she was determined, said unto her: “Mistress Iulietta, I pray you in the name of God by little and little to moderate your conceived grief, and to content your self whilst you be here, until I have provided what is best for you to do, for before you part from hence, I will give you such consolation and remedy for your afflictions, as you shall remain satisfied and contented”. 111. Friar Laurence leaves her and goes to his cell. He feels responsible for having married her. [BOA:111] [BR:154]And resolved upon this good mind, he speedily went out of the Church unto his chamber, where he began to consider of many things, his conscience being moved to hinder the marriage between the Count Paris and her, knowing that by his means she had espoused an other, 112. The Friar is troubled by fears for the lovers and himself in case Iulietta fails to cope with such a weighty affair. [BAN:96] [BOA:112] [BR:155]and calling to remembrance what a dangerous enterprise he had begun, by committing himself to the mercy of a simple damsel, and that if she failed to be wise and secret, all their doings should be descried, he defamed, and Rhomeo her spouse punished. 113. Eventually the Friar resolves to help Iulietta and gives her a vial. [DP:59] [BAN:97] [BOA:113] [BR:156]He then after he had well debated upon an infinite number of devices, was in the end overcome with pity, and determined rather to hazard his honour, than to suffer the adultery of Count Paris with Iulietta. And being determined hereupon, opened his closet, and taking a vial in his hand, returned again to Iulietta, whom he found like one that was in a trance, waiting for news, either of life, or death. 114. Friar Laurence asks Iulietta when the marriage will take place (September). [BOA:114] [BR:157]Of whom the good old father demanded upon what day her marriage was appointed. “The first day of that appointment (quod she) is upon Wednesday, which is the day ordained for my consent of marriage accorded between my father and Count Paris, but the nuptial solemnity is not before the x day of September”. 115. Friar Laurence vows to help and stand loyal to both Rhomeo and Iulietta. [BOA:115] [BR:158]“Well then (quod the religious father) be of good cheer daughter, for our Lord God hath opened a way unto me both to deliver you and Rhomeo from the prepared thraldom. I have known your husband from his cradle, and he hath daily committed unto me the greatest secrets of his conscience, and I have so dearly loved him again, as if he had been mine own son. Wherefore my heart can not abide that any man should do him wrong in that specially wherein my counsel may stand him instead. And for so much as you are his wife, I ought likewise to love you, and seek means to deliver you from the martyrdom and anguish wherewith I see your heart besieged. 116. Friar Laurence bids Iulietta to secrecy. [DP:59] [BAN:97] [BOA:116] [BR:159]Understand then (good daughter) of a secrete which I purpose to manifest unto you, and take heed above all things, that you declare it to no living creature, for therein consisteth your life and death. 117. The Friar describes his past adventures when he learnt about a “particular fruit” which will serve Iulietta’s purpose. [BOA:117] [BR:160]You be not ignorant by the common report of the citizens of this city, and by the same published of me, that I have travailed thorough all the Provinces of the habitable earth, whereby during the continual time of xx years, I have sought no rest for my wearied body, but rather have many times protruded the same to the mercy of brute beasts in the wilderness, and many times also to the merciless waves of the seas, and to the pity of common pirates together with a thousand other dangers and shipwrecks upon sea and land. So it is good daughter that all my wandering voyages have not bene altogethers unprofitable. For besides the incredible contentation received ordinarily in mind, I have gathered some particular fruit, whereof by the grace of God you shall shortly feel some experience. I have proved the secrete properties of stones, of plants, metals, and other things hidden within the bowels of the earth, wherewith I am able to help my self against the common law of men, when necessity doth serve: specially in things wherein I know mine eternal God to be least offended. 118. The Friar tells Iulietta why he wants to help her. [BR:161] [BOA:118]For as thou knowest I being approached as it were, even to the brim of my grave, and that the time draweth near for yielding of mine accompt before the auditor of all auditors, I ought therefore to have some deep knowledge and apprehension of Gods judgement more than I had when the heat of unconsidered youth did boil within my lusty body. 119. The Friar describes the virtues of his sleeping potion. [BAN:98] [BOA:119] [BR:162] [R&J-Q1:35.b] [R&J-Q2:35.b]Know you therefore good daughter, that with those graces and favours which the heavens prodigally have bestowed upon me, I have learned and proved of long time the composition of a certain paste, which I make of divers soporiferous samples, which beaten afterwards to powder, and drunk with a quantity of water, within a quarter of an hour after, bringeth the receiver into such a sleep, and burieth so deeply the senses and other spirits of life, that the cunningest Physician will judge the party dead: and besides that it hath a more marvellous effect, for the person which useth the same feeleth no kind of grief, and according to the quantity of the dough, the patient remaineth in a sweet sleep, but when the operation is perfect and done, he returneth into his first estate. 120. Friar urges her to take manly courage and drink the potion.He informs Iulietta of the stratagem. [DP:61] [BAN:98] [BAN:100] [BOA:120] [BR:163] [R&J-Q1:35.c] [R&J-Q2:35.c]Now then Iulietta receive mine instruction, and put of all feminine affection by taking upon you a manly stomach, for by the only courage of your mind consisteth the hap or mishap of your affairs. Behold here I give you a vial which you shall keep as your own proper heart, and the night before your marriage, or in the morning before day, you shall fill the same up with water, and drink so much as is contained therein. And then you shall feel a certain kind of pleasant sleep, which encroaching by little and little all the parts of your body, will constrain then in such wise, as unmoveable they shall remain: and by not doing their accustomed duties, shall loose their natural feelings, and you abide in such ecstasy the space of 40 hours at the least without any beating of pulse or other perceptible motion, which shall so astonish them that come to see you, as they will judge you to be dead, and according to the custom of our city, you shall be carried to the churchyard hard by our Church, where you shall be entombed in the common monument of the Capellets your ancestors, and in the meantime we will send word to the Lord Rhomeo by a special messenger of the effect of our device, who now abideth at Mantua. And the night following I am sure he will not fail to be here, then he and I together will open the grave, and lift up your body, and after the operation of the powder is past, he shall convey you secretly to Mantua, unknown to all your parents and friends. Afterwards (it may be) time the mother of truth shall cause concord between the offended city of Verona and Rhomeo. At which time your common cause may be made open to the general contentation of all your friends”. 121. Iulietta happily agrees and shows courage. [DP:62] [BAN:99] [BAN:100] [BOA:121] [BR:164] [R&J-Q1:35.b] [R&J-Q2:35.b]The words of the good Father ended, new joy surprised the heart of Iulietta, who was so attentive to his talk as she forget no one point of her lesson. Then she said unto him: “Father, doubt not at all that my heart shall fail in performance of your commandment: for were it the strongest poison or most pestiferous venom, rather would I thrust it into my body, than to consent to fall in the hands of him, whom I utterly mislike with a right strong reason then may I fortify my self, and offer my body to any kind of mortal danger to approach and draw near to him, upon whom wholly dependeth my life and all the contentation I have in this world”. 122. The Friar prays God to make her constant in this deed. [BOA:122] [BR:165]“Go your ways then my daughter (quod the Friar) the mighty hand of God keep you, and his surpassing power defend you, and confirm that will and good mind of yours, for the accomplishment of this work”. 123. Iulietta goes back home and praises Friar Laurence with his mother. She also agrees to marry Count Lodrone and asks her father’s forgiveness. [DP:64] [BAN:101] [BOA:123] [BR:166] [R&J-Q1:36.c] [R&J-Q2:36.c]Iulietta departed from Friar Laurence, and returned home to her fathers palace about xj of the clock, where she found her mother at the gate attending for her: and in good devotion demanded if she continued still in her former follies? But Iulietta with more gladsome cheer than she was wont to use, not suffering her mother to aske again, said unto her: Madame I come from S. Francis Church, where I have tarried longer peradventure than my duty requireth: how be it not without fruit and great rest to my afflicted conscience, by reason of the godly persuasions of our ghostly father Friar Laurence, unto whom I have made a large declaration of my life. And chiefly have communicated unto him in confession, that which hath past between my Lord my father and you, upon the marriage of Count Paris and me. But the good man hath reconciled me by his holy words and commendable exhortations, that where I had mind never to marry, now I am well disposed to obey your pleasure and commandment. Wherefore Madame I beseech you to recover the favour and good will of my father, ask pardon in my behalf, and say unto him (if it please you) that by obeying his fatherly request, I am ready to meet the Count Paris at Villafranco, and there in your presence to accept him for my Lord and husband: in assurance whereof, by your patience, I mean to repair into my closet, to make choice of my most precious jewels, that I being richly adorned and decked, may appear before him more agreeable to his mind and pleasure”. 124. Iulietta’s mother rejoices and informs her husband, who greatly praises the Friar. [DP:65] [BAN:102] [BOA:124] [BR:167] [R&J-Q1:36.d] [R&J-Q2:36.d]The good mother rapt with exceeding great joy, was not able to answer a word, but rather made speed to seek out her husband the Lord Antonio, unto whom she reported the good will of her daughter, and how by means of Friar Laurence her mind was changed. Whereof the good old man marvellous joyful, praised God in heart, saying: “wife this is not the first good turn which we have received of that holy man, unto whom every Citizen of this Common wealth is dearly bound. I would to God that I had redeemed xx of his years with the third part of my goods, so grievous is to me his extreme old age”. 125. Lord Antonio goes to inform Count Lodronne and invite him to Villafranco, but the young lover suggests that he cancels the visit and goes to see Iulietta. [BOA:125] [BR:168] [R&J-Q2:36.h]The self same hour the Lord Antonio went to seek the Count Paris, whom he thought to persuade to go to Villafranco. But the Count told him again, that the charge would be too great, and that better it were to reserve that cost to the marriage day, for the better celebration of the same. Notwithstanding if it were his pleasure, he would himself go visit Iulietta: and so they went together. 126. Iulietta’s mother recommends that she puts on her best manners to impress Paris and win his heart. He is so seduced that wants to hasten the wedding. [DP:65] [BAN:103] [BOA:126] [BR:169]The mother advertised of his coming, caused her Daughter to make her self ready, and to spare no costly jewels for adorning of her beauty against the Count's coming, which she bestowed so well for garnishing of her personage, that before the Count parted from the house, she had so stolen away his heart, as he lived not from that time forth, but upon meditation of her beauty, and slacked no time for acceleration of the marriage day ceasing not to be importunate upon father and mother for the end and consummation thereof: 127. Time passes and the day before the wedding day arrives. Iulietta’s mother has provided for it magnificently. [BAN:103] [BOA:127] [BR:170]And thus with joy enough passed forth this day and many others until the day before the marriage, against which time the mother of Iulietta did so well provide, that there wanted nothing to set forth the magnificence and nobility of their house. 128. The narrator comments on Villafranco, where the wedding feast will take place. [BOA:128]Villafranco whereof we have made mention, was a place of pleasure, where the lord Antonio was wont many times to recreate him self a mile or two from Verona, there the dinner was prepared, for so much as the ordinary solemnity of necessity must be done at Verona. 129. The night before the wedding Iulietta asks the nurse to leave her alone as she wants to pray. [BAN:104] [BOA:129] [BR:174] [R&J-Q1:37.a] [R&J-Q2:37.a]Iulietta perceiving her time to approach, dissembled the matter so well as she could: and when time forced her to retire to her chamber, her woman would have waited upon her, and have lain in her chamber, as her custom was. But Iulietta said unto her: “Good and faithful mother, you know that tomorrow is my marriage day, and for that I would spend the most part of the night in prayer, I pray you for this time to let me alone, and tomorrow in the morning about vj of the clock come to me again to help me make me ready”. 130. The nurse leaves Iulietta alone. [BAN:104] [BOA:130] [BR:175] [R&J-Q1:37.a] [R&J-Q2:37.a]The good old woman willing to follow her mind, suffered her alone, and doubted nothing of that which she did mean to do. 131. Iulietta prepares to drink the potion and starts doubting. [BAN:104] [BOA:131] [BR:176] [R&J-Q1:37.b] [R&J-Q2:37.b]Iulietta being within her chamber having an ewer full of water standing upon the table filled the vial which the Friar gave her: and after she had made the mixture, she set it by her bed side, and went to bed. And being lain, new thoughts began to assail her, with a concept of grievous death, which brought her into such case as she could not tell what to doe, but playing incessantly said: 132. Iulietta laments her lot. [BOA:132] [BR:177]“Am not I the most unhappy and desperate creature, that ever was born of woman? For me there is nothing left in this wretched world but mishap, misery, and mortal woe, my distress hath brought me to such extremity, as to save mine honour and conscience, I am forced to devour the drink whereof I know not the virtue: 133. Iulietta fears the potion will not work properly. [BAN:107] [BOA:133] [BR:178] [R&J-Q1:37.c R&J-Q2:37.c]but what know I (said she) whether the operation of this powder will be to soon or too late, or not correspondent to the due time, and that my fault being discovered, I shall remain a fable to the people? 134. She fears serpents or odious beasts should appear in the tomb or that she be stifled by the odour of the corpses. [BAN:106] [BOA:134] [BR:179] [R&J-Q1:37.e] [R&J-Q2:37.e]What know I moreover, if the serpents and other venomous and crawling worms, which commonly frequent the graves and pits of the earth will hurt me, thinking that I am dead? But how shall I endure the stink of so many carrions and bones of mine ancestors which rest in the grave, if by fortune I do awake before Rhomeo and Friar Laurence doe come to help me?” 135. She thinks she sees Thibault’s ghost and other spectres (she is said to have blond hair). [BAN:105] [BOA:135] [BR:180] [R&J-Q1:37.f] [R&J-Q2:37.f]And as she was thus plunged in the deep contemplation of things, she thought that she saw a certain vision or fancy of her cousin Thibault, in the very same sort as she saw him wounded and imbrued with blood, and musing how that she must be buried quick amongst so many dead carcases and deadly naked bones, her tender and delicate body began to shake and tremble, and her yellow locks to stare for fear, in such wise as freighted with terror, a cold sweat began to pierce her heart, and bedew the rest of all her members, in such wise as she thought that a hundred thousand deaths did stand about her, haling her on every side, and plucking her in pieces, 136. She eventually takes the potion and faints. [DP:67] [BAN:108] [BOA:136] [BR:181] [R&J-Q1:37.g] [R&J-Q2:37.g]and feeling that her forces diminished by little and little, fearing that through to great debility she was not able to do her enterprise, like a furious and insensate woman, without further care, gulped up the water within the vial, then crossing her arms upon her stomach, she lost at that instant all the powers of her body, resting in a trance. 137. At dawn the nurse goes to wake Iulietta up. [DP:69] [BAN:109] [BOA:137] [BR:182] [R&J-Q1:39.a] [R&J-Q2:39.a]And when the morning light began to thrust his head out of his Orient, her chamber woman which had locked her in with the key, did open the door, and thinking to awake her, called her many times, and said unto her: “Mistress, you sleep to long, the Count Paris will come to raise you. The poor old woman spake unto the wall, and sang a song unto the deaf. For if all the horrible and tempestuous sounds of the world had bene cannoned forth out of the greatest bombards, and sounded through her delicate ears, her spirits of life were so fast bound and stopt, as she by no means could awake, wherewith the poor old woman amazed, began to shake her by the arms and hands, which she found so cold as marble stone. 138. The Nurse discovers Iulietta apparently dead and goes screaming to tell her mother. [DP:70] [BAN:110] [BOA:138] [BR:183] [R&J-Q1:39.b] [R&J-Q2:39.b]Then putting hand unto her mouth, soddenly perceived that she was dead, for she perceived no breath in her. Wherefore like a woman out of her wits, she ran to tell her mother, 139. The mother despairs (simile of the tiger). [DP:73] [BAN:111] [BOA:139] [BR:184] [R&J-Q1:39.c] [R&J-Q2:39.c] Architextualitywho so mad as tiger, bereft of her fawns, hide her self into her daughters chamber, and in that pitiful state beholding her daughter, thinking her to be dead, cried out: “Ah cruel death, which hast ended all my joy and bliss, use thy last scourge of thy wrathful ire against me, least by suffering me to live the rest of my woeful days, my torment do increase”. Then she began to fetch such straining sighs as her heart did seem to cleave in pieces. 140. Lord Antonio and the city of Verona mourn Iulietta’s (fake) death. [BAN:112] [BOA:140] [BR:185] [R&J-Q1:39.f] [R&J-Q1:39.j] [R&J-Q2:39.f] [R&J-Q2:39.j] ArchitextualityAnd as her cries began to increase, behold the father, the Count Paris, and a great troupe of gentlemen and ladies, which were come to honour the feast, hearing no sooner tell of that which chanced, were stroke into such sorrowful dumps as he which had beheld their faces would easily have judged that the same had bene a day of ire and pity, 141. Iulietta’s father is struck dumb by the scene and calls for the best doctors in town. They determine that Iulietta has died of melancholy. [DP:71] [DP:72] [BAN:113] [BOA:141] [BR:186] Architextualityspecially the lord Antonio, whose heart was frapped with such surpassing woe, as neither tear nor word could issue forth, and knowing not what to doe, straight way set to seek the most expert physicians of the town, who after they had inquired of the life past of Iulietta, deemed by common report, that melancholy was the cause of that sudden death, and then their sorrows began to renew afresh. 142. General lamentation of the town over Iulietta’s death. [BAN:112] [BOA:142] [BR:187] [R&J-Q1:39.h] [R&J-Q2:39.h] ArchitextualityAnd if ever day was lamentable, piteous, unhappy and fatal, truly it was that wherein Iulietta her death was published in Verona: for she was so bewailed of great and small, that by the common plaints the commonwealth seemed to be in danger, and not without cause. For besides her natural beauty accompanied with many virtues wherewith nature had enriched her she was else so humble, wise and debonair, as for that humility and curtesy she had stolen away the hearts of every wight, and there was none but did lament her misfortune. 143. In the meantime the Friar has sent Friar Anselme to Rhomeo with a letter Containing instructions. [DP:75] [BAN:114] [BOA:143] [BR:188] [R&J-Q2:35.c]And whilst these things were in this lamented state, Friar Laurence with diligence dispatched a Friar of his Convent, named Friar Anselme, whom he trusted as himself, and delivered him a letter written with his own hand, commanding him expressly not to give the same to any other but to Rhomeo, wherein was contained the chance which had passed between him and Iulietta, specially the virtue of the powder, and commanded him the next ensuing night to speed him self to Verona, for that the operation of the powder that time would take end, and that he should carry with him back again to Mantua his beloved Iulietta, in dissembled apparel, until Fortune had otherwise provided for them. 144. Friar Anselme is stopped in Mantua because of a brother who had died of the plague. [DP:75] [BAN:115] [BOA:144] [BR:189] [R&J-Q1:42.b] [R&J-Q2:42.b]The Friar made such hast as (too late) he arrived at Mantua, within a while after. And because the manner of Italy is that the Friar travailing abroad ought to take a companion of his convent to doe his affairs within the city, the Friar went into his convent, but because he was entered in, it was not lawful for him to come out again that day, for that certain days before, one religious of that convent as it was said, did die of the plague. Wherefore the magistrates appointed for the health and visitation of the sick, commanded the warden of the house that no Friars should wander abroad the city, or talk with any citizen, until they were licenced by the officers in that behalf appointed, which was the cause of the great mishap, which you shall hear hereafter. The Friar being in this perplexity, not able to goe forth, and not knowing what was contained in the letter, deferred his journey for that day. 145. Italian funerary customs. [BOA:145] [BR:191]Whilst things were in this plight, preparation was made at Verona, to doe the obsequies of Iulietta. There is a custom also (which is common in Italy,) to place all the best of one linage and family in one tomb, 146. Iulietta is laid in the Cappellettes’s tomb. [DP:74] [BAN:123] [BOA:146] [BR:192]whereby Iulietta was laid in the ordinary grave of the Capellettes, in a churchyard, hard by the Church of the Friars, where also the Lord Thibault was interred. 147. Pietro also attends the funeral. [BAN:120] [BOA:147] [BR:194]And her obsequies honourably done, every man returned: whereunto Pietro, the servant of Rhomeo, gave his assistance.  148. The narrator repeats that Rhomeo’s man had been sent back to Verona. [BOA:148] [BR:195]For as we have before declared, his master sent him back again from Mantua to Verona, to do his father service, and to advertise him of that which should chance in his absence there: 149. Pietro goes to Mantua and informs Rhomeo of Iulietta’s death. [DP:77] [BAN:121] [BAN:124] [BOA:149] [BR:196] [R&J-Q1:41.b] [R&J-Q2:41.b]who seeing the body of Iulietta, enclosed in tomb, thinking with the rest that she had bene dead indeed, incontinently took poste horse, and with diligence rode to Mantua, where he found his master in his wonted house, to whom he said, with his eyes full of tears: Sir, there is chanced unto you so strange a matter, as if so be you do not arm your self with constancy, I am afraid that I shall be the cruel minister of your death. Be it known unto you sir, that yesterday morning my mistress Iulietta left her life in this world to seek rest in an other: and with these eyes I saw her buried in the Churchyard of S. Francis”. 150. At the news Rhomeo decides to die and to rest with Iulietta. [DP:78] [BAN:125] [BAN:127] [BOA:150] [BR:197] [R&J-Q1:41.c] [R&J-Q1:41.e] [R&J-Q2:41.c] [R&J-Q2:41.e]At the sound of which heavy message, Rhomeo began woefully to lament, as though his spirits grieved with the torment of his passion at that instant would have abandoned his body.

  But strong love which would not permit him to faint until the extremity framed a thought in his fantasy, that if it were possible for him to die besides her, his death should be more glorious, and she (as he thought) better contented. 151. Rhomeo roams about and finally finds a poor apothecary. [BAN:134] [BOA:151] [BR:198] [R&J-Q1:41.f] [R&J-Q1:41.g] [R&J-Q2:41.f] [R&J-Q2:41.g]By reason whereof after bene he had washed his face for fear to discover his sorrow, he went out of his chamber, and commanded his man to tarry behind him, that he might walk thorough out all the corners of the city, to find proper remedy (if it were possible) for his grief. And amongst others, beholding an Apothecary’s shop of little furniture and less store of boxes and other things requisite for that science, thought that the very poverty of the master Apothecary would make him willingly yield to that which he pretended to demand.

  152. Rhomeo offers fifty ducates to the apothecary to buy the poison. The apothecary accepts the money and sells it to him. [BOA:152] [BR:200] [R&J-Q1:41.i] [R&J-Q2:41.i]And after he had taken him aside, secretly he said unto him: “Sir, if you be the master of the house, as I think you be, behold here fifty ducats, which I give you, to the intent you deliver me some strong and violent poison that within a quarter of an hour is able to procure death unto him that shall use it”. The covetous Apothecary enticed by gain, agreed to his request, and feigning to give him some other medicine before the peoples face, he speedily made ready a strong and cruel poison, 153. The apothecary describes the speediness of the poison to Rhomeo. [BOA:153] [BR:201] [R&J-Q1:41.j] [R&J-Q1:41.i]afterwards he said unto him softly: “Sir, I give you more than is needful, for the one half is able to destroy the strongest man of the world”, 154. Rhomeo goes back home and tells Pietro to go back to Verona and to prepare the necessary instruments to open Iulietta’s tomb. He also urges Pietro not to divulge his plan. Pietro goes to Verona. [BAN:128] [BOA:154] [BR:202]who after he had received the poison, returned home, where he commanded his man to depart with diligence to Verona, and that he should make provision of candles, a tinderbox, and other instruments meet for the opining of the grave of Iulietta, and that above all things he should not fail to attend his coming besides the churchyard of S. Francis, and upon pain of life to keep his intent in silence. Which Pietro obeyed in order as his master had commanded him, and made therein such expedition, as he arrived in good time to Verona, taking order for all things that were commanded him. 155. Rhomeo writes a letter to his father in which he tells him the whole story of his love for Iulietta. [BAN:129] [BOA:155] [BR:203] [R&J-Q1:41.c] [R&J-Q2:41.c]Rhomeo in the meanwhile being solicited with mortal thoughts, caused ink and paper to be brought unto him, and in few words put in writing all the discourse of his love, the marriage of him and Iulietta the mean observed for consummation of the same, the help that he had of Friar Laurence, the buying of his poison, and last of all his death. Afterwards, having finished his heavy tragedy, he closed the letters, and sealed the same with his seal, and directed the superscription thereof to his father: 156. Rhomeo arrives in Verona at night and finds his man waiting for him at the monument, with the instruments. He bids him to go away and to take the letter to his father. [DP:81] [BAN:131] [BAN:134] [BOA:156] [BR:204] [R&J-Q1:43.d] [R&J-Q2:43.d]and putting the letters into his purse, he mounted on horseback, and used such diligence, that he arrived upon dark night at the city of Verona, before the gates were shut, where he found his servant tarrying for him there, with a lantern and instruments before said, meet for the opening of the grave, unto whom he said: “Pietro, help me to open this tomb, and so soon as it is open, I command thee upon pain of thy life, not to come near me, nor to stay me from the thing I purpose to doe. Behold, there is a letter which thou shalt present tomorrow in the morning to my father at his uprising, which peradventure shall please him better than thou thinkest”. 157. Pietro agrees and obediently withdraws. [BOA:157] [BR:205] [R&J-Q1:43.e] [R&J-Q2:43.e]Pietro, not able to imagine what was his masters intent, stood somewhat aloof to behold his master’s gestures and countenance. 158. They open the tomb and Rhomeo sees Iulietta’s body and despairs. [DP:84] [BAN:132] [BOA:158] [BR:206] [R&J-Q1:43.f] [R&J-Q1:44.b] [R&J-Q2:43.f] [R&J-Q2:44.b]And when they had opened the vault, Rhomeo descended down two steps, holding the candle in his hand, and began to behold with pitiful eye, the body of her, which was the organ of his eyes, and kist it tenderly, holding it hard between his arms, and not able to satisfy him self with her sight, put his fearful hands upon the cold stomach of Iulietta. 159. Rhomeo drinks the poison and talks about their sacrifice for love in the same tomb as their best epitaph. [DP:85] [BAN:133] [BOA:159] [BR:207] [R&J-Q1:44.f] [R&J-Q2:44.f]And after he had touched her in many places, and not able to feel any certain judgement of life, he drew the poison out of his box, and swallowing down a great quantity of the same, cried out: “O Iulietta, of whom the world was unworthy, what death is it possible my heart could choose out more agreeable than that which it suffereth hard by thee? What grave more glorious, than to be buried in thy tomb? What more worthy or excellent Epitaph can be vowed for memory, than the mutual and pitiful sacrifice of our lives?” 160. Rhomeo sees Thibault and asks for forgiveness. [BAN:141] [BOA:160] [BR:208] [R&J-Q2:44.c]And thinking to renew his sorrow, his heart began to fret thorough the violence of the poison, which by little and little assailed the same, and looking about him, espied the body of the Lord Thibault, lying next unto Iulietta, which as yet was not altogether putrefied, and speaking to th body, as though it had bene alive, said: “In what place so ever thou art (O cousin Thibault) I most heartily doe cry thee mercy for the offense which I have done by depriving of thy life: and if thy ghost doe wish and cry out for vengeance upon me, what greater or more cruel satisfaction canst thou desire to have, or henceforth hope for, than to see him which murdered thee , to be empoisoned with his own hands, and buried by thy side?” 161. Rhomeo invokes God’s pity. [BOA:161] [BR:209]Then ending his talk, feeling by little and little that his life began to fail falling prostrate upon his knees, with feeble voice he softly said: “O my Lord God, which to redeem me didst descend from the bosom of thy father, and tokest humane flesh in the womb of the virgin, I acknowledge and confess that this body of mine is nothing else but earth and dust.” 162. Rhomeo dies upon Iulietta’s body. [DP:95] [BAN:148] [BOA:162] [BR:210] [R&J-Q1:44.f] [R&J-Q1:44.f]Then ceased upon with desperate sorrow, he fell down upon the body of Iulietta with such vehemence, as the heart faint and attenuated with too great torment, not able to bear so hard a violence, was abandoned of all his sense and natural powers, in such sort as the siege of his soul failed him at that instant, and his members stretched forth, remained stiff and cold. 163. Without news from Rhomeo, the Friar goes to the monument. [DP:95] [BAN:145] [BOA:163] [BR:211] [R&J-Q1:45.a] [R&J-Q2:45.a]Friar Laurence which knew the certain time of the powders operation, marvelled that he had no answer of the letter which he sent to Rhomeo by his fellow Friar Anselme, departed from S. Francis, and with instruments for the purpose, determined to open the grave to let in air to Iulietta, which was ready to wake: and approaching the place, he espied a light within, which made him afraid, 164. Pietro informs the Friar about Rhomeo’s being there. [BOA:164] [BR:212] [R&J-Q1:45.b] [R&J] [Q2:45.b]until that Pietro which was hard by, had certified him that Rhomeo was within, and had not ceased there to lament and complain the space of half an hour. 165. They enter the monument and find Rhomeo dead. [DP:96] [BAN:147] [BOA:165] [BR:213] [R&J-Q1:45.g] [R&J-Q2:45.g]And then they two were entered the grave, and finding Rhomeo without life, made such sorrow as they can well conceive which love their dear friend with like perfection. 166. Iulietta wakes up and asks the Friar to be reassured. [DP:87] [DP:96] [BAN:136] [BAN:146] [BOA:166] [BR:214] [R&J-Q1:45.h] [R&J-Q2:45.h]And as they were making their complaints, Iulietta rising out of her trance, and beholding light within the tomb, uncertain whether it were a dream or fantasy that appeared before her eyes, coming again to her self, knew Friar Laurence, unto whom she said: “Father I pray thee in the name of God to perform thy promise, for I am almost dead”. 167. The Friar tells Iulietta about Rhomeo’s death and tries to persuade her to go away and stay in a monastery. [DP:96] [DP:99] [BAN:147] [BAN:152] [BOA:167] [BR:215] [R&J-Q1:45.i] [R&J-Q2:45.i]And then Friar Laurence concealing nothing from her, (because he feared to be taken through his too long abode in that place) faithfully rehearsed unto her, how he had sent Friar Anselme to Rhomeo at Mantua, from whom as yet he had received no answer. Notwithstanding he found Rhomeo dead in the grave, whose body he pointed unto, lying hard by her, praying her sith it was so , patiently to bear that sudden misfortune, and that if it pleased her, he would convey her into some monastery of women where she might in time moderate her sorrow, and give rest unto her mind. 168. Iulietta sees Rhomeo dead and despairs. [DP:101] [BAN:149] [BAN:151] [BOA:168] [BR:216] [R&J-Q1:46.a] [R&J-Q2:46.a]Iulietta had no sooner cast eye upon the dead corpse of Rhomeo, but began to break the fountain pipes of gushing tears, which ran forth in such abundance, as not able to support the furore of her grief, she breathed without ceasing upon his mouth, and then throwing her self upon his body, and embracing it very hard, seemed that by force of sighs and sobs, she would have revived, and brought him again to life, and after she had kissed and rekissed him a million of times, she cried out: “Ah the sweet rest of my cares, and the only port of all my pleasures and pastimes, hadst thou so sure a heart to choose thy churchyard in this place between the arms of thy perfect lover, and to end the course of thy life for my sake in the flower of thy youth when life to thee should have bene most dear and delectable? how had this tender body power to resist the furious combat of death, very death it self being here present? How could thy tender and delicate youth willingly permit that thou shouldest approach into this filthy and infected place, where from henceforth thou shalt be the pasture of worms unworthy of thee? Alas, alas, by what means shall I now renew my plaints, which time and long patience ought to have buried and clearly quenched? Ah I miserable and caitiff wretch, thinking to find remedy for my griefs, I have sharpened the knife that hath given me this cruel blow, whereof I receive the cause of mortal wound. Ah happy and fortunate grave which shalt serve in world to come for witness of the most perfect alliance that ever was between two most fortunate lovers, receive now the last sobbing sighs, and entertainment of the most cruel of all the cruel subjects of ire and death”. 169. Pietro tells the Friar he has heard a noise and both leave. [BOA:169] [BR:217] [R&J-Q2:45.i]And as she thought to continue her complaints, Pietro advertised Friar Laurence that he heard a noise besides the citadel, wherewith being afraid, they speedily departed, fearing to be taken. 170. Iulietta stabs herself with Rhomeo’s dagger and dies. [DP:102] [BAN:153] [BOA:170] [BR:218] [R&J-Q1:46.c] [R&J-Q2:46.c]And then Iulietta seeing her self alone, and in full liberty, toke again Rhomeo between her arms, kissing him with such affection, as she seemed to be more attainted with love than death, and drawing out the dagger which Rhomeo ware by his side, she pricked her self with many blows against the hart, saying with feeble and pitiful voice: Ah death the end of sorrow, and beginning of felicity, thou art most heartily welcome: fear not at this time to sharpen thy dart, give no longer delay of life, for fear that my spirit travail not to find Rhomeos ghost amongst such number of carrion corpses. And thou my dear lord and loyal husband Rhomeo, if there rest in thee any knowledge, receive her whom thou hast so faithfully loved, the only cause of thy violent death, which frankly offreth up her soul that none but thou shalt joy the love whereof thou hast made so lawful conquest. And that our souls passing from this light, may eternally live together in the place of everlasting joy”. And when she had ended those words she yielded up her ghost. 171. The watchmen of the town pass by, enter the monument, and find the corpses. They apprehend the Friar and Pietro. [DP:103] [BAN:154] [BOA:171] [BR:21] [ì9] [R&J-Q1:46.b] [R&J-Q1:47.b] [R&J-Q2:46.b] [R&J-Q2:47.b]While these things thus were done, the guard and watch of the city by chance passed by, and seeing light within the grave, suspected straight that they were necromancers which had opened the tomb to abuse the dead bodies for aide of their art: and desirous to know what it meant, went down into the vault, where they found Rhomeo and Iulietta, with their arms embracing each others neck, as though there had bene some token of life. And after they had well viewed them at leisure, they knew in what case they were. And then all amazed they sought for the thieves which (as they thought) had done the murder, and in the end found the good father Friar Laurence and Pietro the servant of dead Rhomeo (which had hid themselves under a stall) whom they carried to prison, 172. They inform the Lord Escala. All the town runs to the monument. [DP:104] [BAN:155] [BAN:156] [BAN:157] [BOA:172] [BR:220] [R&J-Q1:47.c] [R&J-Q1:47.d] [R&J-Q2:47.c] [R&J-Q2:47.d]and advertised the lord of Escala, and the magistrates of Verona of that horrible murder, which by and by was published throughout the city. Then flocked together all the citizens, women and children, leaving their houses, to look upon that pitiful sight, 173. The Lord orders that the corpses be exhibited upon a stage high raised from the ground, and that the two suspects be investigated. [DP:108] [BOA:173] [BR:221] [R&J-Q1:48.a] [R&J-Q2:48.a]and to the end that in presence of the whole city, the murder should be known, the magistrates ordained that the two dead bodies should be erected upon a stage to the view and sight of the whole world, in such sort and manner as they were found within the grave, and that Pietro and Friar Laurence should publicly be examined, that afterwards there might be no murmur or other pretended cause of ignorance. 174. The Friar clears himself and recapitulates the events. [DP:107] [BOA:174] [BR:222] [R&J-Q1:48.b] [R&J-Q1:48.c] [R&J-Q2:48.b] [R&J-Q2:48.c]And this good old Friar being upon the scaffold, having a white beard all wet and bathed with tears, the judges commanded to declare unto them who were the authors of that murder, sith at untimely hour he was apprehended with certain irons besides the grave. Friar Laurence a round and frank man of talk, nothing moved with that accusation, said unto them with stout and bold voice: “My masters, there is none of you all (if you have respect unto my forepassed life, and to my aged years, and therewithal have consideration of this heavy spectacle, whereunto unhappy fortune hath presently brought me) but doeth greatly marvel of so sudden mutation and change unlooked for, for so much as these three score and ten or twelve years sithens I came into this world, and began to prove the vanities thereof, I was never suspected, touched, or found guilty of any crime which was able to make me blush, or hide my face, although (before God) I doe confess my self to be the greatest and most abominable sinner of the redeemed flock of Christ. So it is notwithstanding, that sith I am prest and ready to render mine accompt, and that death, the grave and worms do daily summon this wretched corps of mine to appear before the justice seat of God, still weighting and attending to be carried to my hoped grave, this is the hour I say, as you likewise may think wherein I am fallen to the greatest damage and prejudice of my life and honest port, and that which hath engendered this sinister opinion of me, may peradventure be these great tears which in abundance trickle down my face, as though the holy scriptures do not witness, that Jesus Christ moved with humane pity and compassion, did weep and pour forth tears, and that many times tears be the faithful messengers of a mans innocence. Or else the most likely evidence and presumption, is the suspected hour, which (as the magistrate doth say) doe make me culpable of the murder, as though all hours were not indifferently made equal by God their creator, who in his own person declareth unto us that there be twelve hours in the day, shewing thereby that there is no exception of hours nor of minutes, but that one may doe either good or ill at all times indifferently, as the party is guided or forsaken by the spirit of God: touching the irons which were found about me, needful it is not now to let you understand for what use iron was first made, and that of it self it is not able to increase in man either good or evil, if not by the mischievous mind of him which doth abuse it. Thus much I have thought good to tell you, to the intent that neither tears, nor iron, not yet suspected hour, are able to make me guilty of the murder, or make me otherwise than I am, but only the witness of mine own conscience, which alone if I were guilty should be the accuser, the witness, and the hangman, which (by reason of mine age and the reputation I have had amongst you, and the little time that I have to live in this world should more torment me within, than all the mortal pains that could be devised. But (thanks be to mine eternal God) I feel no worm that gnawed, nor any remorse that pricketh me touching that fact, for which I see you all troubled and amazed. And to set your hearts at rest, and to remove the doubts which hereafter may torment your consciences, I swear unto you by the heavenly parts wherein I hope to be, that forthwith I will disclose from first to last the entire discourse of this pitiful tragedy, which peradventure shall drive you into no less wonder and amaze, than those two poor passionate lovers were strong and patient, to expose themselves to the mercy of death, for the fervent and indissoluble love between them. Then the Fatherly Friar began to repeat the beginning of the love between Iulietta and Rhomeo, which by certain space of time confirmed, was prosecuted by words at the first, then by mutual promise of marriage, unknown to the world. And as within few days after, the two lovers feeling themselves sharpened and incited with stronger onset, repaired unto him under colour of confession, protesting by other that they were both married, and that if he would not solemnize that marriage in the face of the church, they should be constrained to offend God to live in disordered lust. In consideration whereof, and specially seeing their alliance to be good and conformable in dignity, richesse and nobility on both sides, hoping by that means perchance to reconcile the Montesches and Capellets, and that by doing such an acceptable work to God, he gave them the churches blessing in a certain chapel of the Friars church, whereof the night following, they did consummate the marriage fruits in the palace of the Capellets. For testimony of which copulation, the woman of Iuliettaes chamber was able to depose: Adding moreover, the murder of Thibault, which was cousin to Iulietta: by reason whereof the banishment of Rhomeo did follow, and how in the absence of the said Rhomeo, the marriage being kept secret between them, a new matrimony was intreated with the Count Paris, which misliked by Iulietta, she fell down prostrate at his feet in a chapel of S. Francis Church, with full determination to have killed her self with her own hands, if he gave her not counsel how she should avoid the marriage agreed between her father and the Count Paris. For conclusion, he said, that although he was resolved by reason of his age and nearness of death to abhor all secret sciences, wherein in his younger years he had delight, notwithstanding, pressed with importunity, and moved with pity, fearing least Iulietta should doe some cruelty against her self, he stained his conscience, and chose rather with some little fault to grieve his mind, than to suffer the young Gentlewoman to destroy her body, and hazard the danger of her soul. And therefore he opened some part of his ancient cunning, and gave her a certain powder to make her sleep, by means whereof she was thought to be dead. Then he told them how he had sent Friar Anselme to carry letters to Rhomeo of their enterprise, whereof hitherto he had no answer. Then briefly he concluded how he found Rhomeo dead within the grave, who as it is most likely did empoison himself, or was otherwise smothered or suffocated with sorrow by finding Iulietta in that state, thinking she had bene dead. Then he told them how Iulietta did kill her self with the dagger of Rhomeo, to bear him company after his death, and how it was impossible for them to save her for the noise of the watch which forced them to flee from thence. 175. Magistrates look for evidence confirming what the Friar has just told. Pietro confirms the Friar’s words and produces Rhomeo’s letter. [BOA:175] [BR:223] [R&J-Q1:48.e] [R&J-Q1:48.f] [R&J-Q2:48.e] [R&J-Q2:48.f]And for more ample approbation of his saying, he humbly besought the lord of Verona and the magistrates to send to Mantua for Friar Anselme to know the cause of his slack return, that the content of the letter sent to Rhomeo might be seen. To examine the woman of the chamber of Iulietta, and Pietro the servant of Rhomeo, who not attending for further request, said unto them: “My lords when Rhomeo entered the grave, he gave me this packet, written as I suppose with his own hand, who gave me express commandment to deliver them to his father”. The packet opened, they found the whole effect of this story, specially the apothecarys name, which sold him the poison, the price, and the cause wherefore he used it, and all appeared to be so clear and evident, as there rested nothing for further verification of the same, but their presence at the doing of the particulars thereof, for the whole was so well declared in order, as they were out of doubt that the same was true. 176. The Lord’s sentence: the nurse is banished, Pietro is released, the apothecary is hanged and Friar Laurence is freed. [BAN:158] [BOA:176] [BR:224] [R&J-Q1:49.f] [R&J-Q2:49.f]And then the lord Bartholomew of Escala, after he had debated with the magistrates of these events, decreed that the woman of Iulietta her chamber should be banished, because she did conceal that privy marriage from the father of Rhomeo, which if it had bene known in time, had bred to the whole city an universal benefit. Pietro because he obeyed his masters commandment, and kept close his lawful secrets, according to the well conditioned nature of a trusty servant, was set at liberty. The apothecary taken, rackt, and found guilty, was hanged. The good old man Friar Laurence (as well for respect of his ancient service which he had done to the common wealth of Verona, as also for his virtuous life (for the which he was specially recommended) was let goe in peace, without any note of infamy. 177. Friar Laurence retires to solitary life. [BOA:177] [BR:225]Notwithstanding by reason of his age, he voluntarily gave over the world, and closed him self in a hermitage, two miles from Verona, where he lived v or vj years, and spent his time in continual prayer, until he was called out of this transitory world, into the blissful state of everlasting joy. 178. The city mourns. The feuding families reconcile. [DP:105] [BAN:159] [BOA:178] [BR:226] [R&J-Q1:49.c] [R&J-Q1:49.d] [R&J-Q1:49.e] [R&J-Q2:49.c] [R&J-Q2:49.d] [R&J-Q2:49.e]And for the compassion of so strange an infortune, the Montesches and Capellettes poured forth such abundance of tears, as with the same they did evacuate their ancient grudge and choler, whereby they were then reconciled. And they which could not be brought to atonement by any wisdom or humane counsel, were in the end vanquished and made friends by pity. 179. The two lovers are placed into the same tomb on a stately marble pillar adorned with many epitaphs. [DP:110] [BAN:158] [BAN:160] [BOA:179] [BR:227] [R&J-Q1:49.d] [R&J-Q1:49.e] [R&J-Q2:49.d] [R&J-Q2:49.e]And to immortalize the memory of so entire and perfect amity, the lord of Verona ordained that the two bodies of those miraculous lovers should be fast entombed in the grave where they ended their lives, where was erected a high marble pillar, honoured with an infinite number of excellent Epitaphs, which to this day be apparent, with such noble memory, as amongst all the rare excellencies, wherewith the city is furnished, there is none more famous than the monument of Rhomeo and Iulietta.